Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide and this is nearly 7.6 million people died of cancer (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. From those days to now, affecting of cancer on the death incidence increased accordingly. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there will be 15 million new cases of cancer worldwide in 2020. More than 90% of cancer deaths occur by the spread of ill-intentioned cells to healthy organs, a terminological called metastasis. Academia, Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are making substantial research investments in order to develop specific treatments that can destroy cancer.Also, Nanotechnology in cancer treatments is already a reality providing a wide range of new tools and possibilities, from earlier diagnostics and improved imaging to better, more efficient, and more targeted therapies which is called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can remedy huge possibility for cancer treatments with own solutions.This essay will be devolved in two main parts: Firstly, I will examine the types of nanomedicine’s applications for cancer treatments.Secondly, what are the advantages of nanomedicine’s applications against cancer?
In this paragraph, I will explain the types of nanomedicine’s applications for cancer treatments. Nanomaterials come in many flavors. They include lipid-based vehicles (liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and micelles) (Fox, Szoka & Frechet 2009; Sahoo&Labhasetwar 2003.); polymer vehicles, such as hydrogels, polymersomes , and nanofibers (Torchilin, 2001 ; Hartgerink, Beniash & Stupp 2002.); metallic nanoparticles (gold, silver, and titanium) (Zhang,Xu,Lam, Giljohann, Ho & Mirkin 2011); carbon structures [nanotubes, nanohorns, and nanodiamonds (NDs)] (Mochalin, Shenderova & Gogotsi 2011.); and inorganic particles, such as silica (Liong, Lu , Kovochich & Ruehm 2008.) These nanomaterials have been considered as drug and imaging agent delivery vehicles (or even as drugs and imaging agents themselves). Nanomedicine applications range from cancer to inflammation and regenerative medicine, in essence, all sorts of that are clinical medicine. In addition to these nanodrugs and nanodiagnostics, a wide variety of other nanotechnology products can be included under the heading of nanomedicines.These include products such as bandages, biomaterials, surgical tools, and imaging agents.For example, anti-microbial nanocoatings employing germ-killing silver nanoparticles in wound dressings, implantable devices, and catheters. Thus, all of the applications are improving for fighting cancer by scientists.
In this paragraph, I will explore what are the advantages of nanomedicine’s applications against cancer. According to Henry Stemplewski (MHRA, 2008), new drugs and drug delivery vehicles that can improve administration, effectiveness, and safety. For some medicines, reformulation into nano-sized crystals helps make drug delivery within the body more efficient.For instance, a nanotechnology process that creates ‘nano’ versions of existing drugs with the reduction in dosage volume, a decrease in adverse side effects, and reformulation of the drug in a more convenient tablet form.Therefore, nanomedicine is very successfully for early diagnosis of cancers. According to cancer biomarkers are pointers produced by tumor cells spreading in the body and are commonly used in cancer detection. However, they are present in too low concentrations to be efficiently detected in early phases. However, the targeted delivery of specific nanoparticles into the tumor can induce a local interaction with cancer cells and forces them to significantly increase the production of these biomarkers.Biomarkers detection becomes thus much easier and can provide an earlier diagnosis to doctors than biopsies. Early detections of cancers allow early and less burdensome treatments, increasing also the chances of recovery.Another useful tool for accurate cancer imaging is iron oxide. Iron oxide nanoparticles are one useful tool against cancer because, when ‘nano’-engineered with a specific coating, they bind particularly well to the tumors.(Levy, Luciani, Alloyeau, Elgrabli, Deveaux, Pechoux, Chat, Wang, Vats, Gendron, Factor, Lotersztajn, Luciani, Wilhelm & Gazeau 2011.) Their magnetic properties make them suitable imaging agents with MRI-scans while their size and concentration in the tumor allow a very high resolution and an accurate mapping of lesions. Surgeons can thus rely on this to select properly patients and plan the surgical removal of the tumor.(Ross, Zietman, Xie, Coen, Dahl, Shipley, Kaufman, Islam, Guimaraes, Weissleder & Harisinghani 2009.) The researchers hope especially this new method will greatly improve the delivery of drugs to treat cancer. In treatment, nanotechnology is at the head of both targeted drug delivery and main treatments. For instance, nanoparticles can already be injected into the tumor and then be activated to produce heat and destroy cancer cells locally either by magnetic fields, X-Rays or light. Meanwhile, the encapsulation of existing chemotherapy drugs or genes allows much more localized delivery both reducing significantly the quantity of drugs absorbed by the patient for equal impact and the side effects on healthy tissues in the body. Coupling both forms of action has also been achieved with gold nanorods carrying chemotherapy drugs and locally excited in the tumor by infrared light. The caused heat both releases the encapsulated drug and helps destroying the cancer cells, resulting in a combined effect of enhanced delivery and intrinsic therapy.(Goldberg, Langer & Jia 2007.)Therefore, all of these applications make fighting cancer easier.
In conclusion, I have explored works of nanomedicine and advantages of nanomedicine against cancer. Firstly, I have focused on what kind of nanomaterials and nanoparticles exist.Secondly, I have explained what kind of advantages these applications have.As mentioned before, I have explored how to make easier fighting cancer with these processes. Although, the majority of people do not believe cancer treatment, nanomedicine is improved for destroying these perceptions by scientists. Furthermore, these people know about works of nanomedicine anything. According to experts, nanomedicine has big potential for cancer treatment.This potential is increasing with developing nanotechnology industry.As the capabilities of multifunctional nanoplatforms continue to increase, the integration of cancer biology, diagnostic imaging and materials science in the future will be essential for cancer treatment.(Sumer & Gao 2008.) Twenty years later, cancer will be most likely a thing of the past.

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