Human Resources Assignment Hi everyone. This is our seventh in the series of eight slide presentations in our course on public organizations. This week we will focus on administrative ethics, the public service. So what is ethics?


Paper should be 4–5 double-spaced pages of content in length (this does not include title page or reference pages). Paper should be in current APA format.

Headings should be included and must conform to the content categories listed (Covenant of hesed, Covenant of ethics, Performance Evaluation).


Ethics in Public Administration

Hi everyone. This is our seventh in the series of eight slide presentations in our course on public organizations. This week we will focus on administrative ethics, the public service. So what is ethics? Well, Preston says ethics is concerned about what is right, what is fair, just, and good about what we do and what we ought to do. There is a strong linkage between ethics and leadership. And our ability to lea. Leading is just not enough. We must lead ethically. Thomas Jefferson stated that public service is public trust. That we need public servants who seek the highest levels of conduct. James Madison in Federalist Paper 51, stated If men were angels, no government would be necessary. In that. First, you must be able to have a government to control the governed and in the next place, oblige it to control itself. This schematic by Kary Cooper at the University of Southern cow, in his textbook, shows the process of ethical decision-making. First, you must proceed the ethical problem, describe the situation, and define the issues behind it. And then I identify the various alternatives you have. What are the consequences of those alternatives? What are the ethical principles you need to follow? Whether the moral rules own self appraisal, what happens if you make each of those different alternative decisions? What would the consequence be? It from all of those, you select an alternative. And based on that, you have resolution. Ethics is based on our role as a leader and our responsibility. To be ethical, it means to act responsibly. Responsibility, as you know, depends on the situation we’re in. And the roller expectations and obligations about accepting and then carrying out those functions and those duties. We can look to the scriptures for guidance for how we should behave ethically as public administrators. First has to be honorable. Timothy one. Chapters 3 through one. To aspire to leadership is normal ambition. Should you then see great things for yourself? Seek them. Not. Jeremiah states that Jesus taught ambition based on yourself was wrong. Ambition should be done for the glory of God and others. And that’s a mighty force for good. First Thessalonians, not only in word, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit. And with full conviction. Despair to serve and how it can be found in Isaiah 42. Dependence. Here’s my servant. Who am I a PO, approval, my chosen one in whom I delight, modesty, empathy, optimism, and anointing. I will put my spirit in him. At the center of the leader’s heart and mind. You’ll find convictions that drive and determine everything else. For the unbeliever leader. Leadership is constructed. It’s not from God’s strength, but from humanities weaknesses, spiritual beatings being saved by God and Jesus. And he called us to be virtuous and righteous, is not so much what we say, but what we do. God expects fairness and for us to be Dogen as leaders were to have integrity in the workplace, as expressed in Jeremiah 22 and Ephesians Chapter 4. Do these things when you face adversity. Pray before you act. Avoid office gossip. Be compassion that when handling wrongdoing. So in making ethical decisions, first, you should begin with uncertainties in the ethical problem. Defined the problem apart from other solutions. Administrators are often under severe time constraints to make decisions. So ethical problems are not static. They change. When reflecting upon ethical decisions. There are different views. The first one is the expressive level. I’ve sort of a gut feeling of discomfort about the decision you made. The second reflection is a level of moral rules. Your actions and your outcomes from those actions are based on rules, maxims, and proverbs. From either what you were brought up with this in your family, from your schooling or from God. Terry cooper in his book, defines responsibility for public administrators to ways objective responsibilities and subjective responsibilities. Object of responsibilities are those that are imposed on the leader from outside themselves. There are two dimensions versus accountability. You’re accountable to your organization or to some other person. And then the other is imposed obligations to either goals of the organization or tasks that must be accomplished. The public administrator, first of all, is responsible to elected officials. He or she is responsible to those above them, as well as their subordinates. And the public administrator is also responsible to the citizens. The second form of responsibility that Kary Cooper discusses in his book on ethics is subjective responsibility. Those are the expectations you have based on your own values and beliefs that you receive from family school, being a Christian, or through training. This is our inner moral compass, so to speak. A common dilemma that public administrators face is one, the objective and subjective responsibilities come into conflict. Being a Christian subject of responsibility and objective responsibility to elected people or to your superior can often become in conflict. There are several conflicts, conflict of authority. When there are two more sources of authority, role conflicts, basically based on your role. When they’re incompatible. Conflict of interest, personal interests and personal values conflict the as our obligations as public leaders and those values. Examples of conflict of interests would be bribery, influence peddling, financial transactions outside employment, gifts, and so forth. Some of the external controls that can help with conflicts are ethics legislation. There, conflict of interest laws. The Federal Hatch Act. There’s guidelines for traveling. There’s rules against employment or employment after the public sector. There are ethical codes that are either professional or based on an organization like American society public administration are international city manager or association. There’s ethics legislation. The ethics legislation is based on the fact that the public’s business is rooted in law. Ethics legislation often carries with it sanctions. Sanctions are usually jail time or fines, or some, some other punitive damage. The codes of ethics. Many times or too vague to general, they don’t apply to every situation. The heart too difficult to monitor. They stifle creativity and discretion. There are several different ethics and here are some sources of ethics. Asp, code of ethics, the ICMA, if you’re a city manager, their ethics, if you’re a federal employee at the executive level, that ethical code of conduct. There are several others. The virtues of public service. As a leader, a public administrator first, be. There are several others. The virtues of public service as a leader or a public administrator first, being humility, being sensitive, imaginative, and be an empathetic. Haven’t moral coverage, prudence, self-righteousness, self-indulgent, self-protection, self-deception. Those are the vices. David Thompson is a political scientist at Princeton University who’s written on administrative ethics more from a political vantage point. The first thing Thompson writes about is the ethics of neutrality. He states that administrators are ethically neutral in that they don’t exercise independent moral judgment. They don’t do that on their own, but they’re controlled by orders and policies that they have to implement. They can put forward their own views. But when it comes down to it in the process of formulating policy, once that policies final, aisle and millet administrators have to fall in line and carry out that policy. They have to be obedient. If they’re not obedient, they have to resign. The second theory by Thompson is the ethic structure that administrators can’t be held morally responsible for most of the decisions and policies. That their personal moral responsibility extends only to the specific duties. That they’re legally liable to, to enact. As the public administrator. There’s so many people involved with policy that there’s no way that the public administrator can be the only one morally responsible. Dennis Thompson refers to this as the problem of many hands. So why do we study public administrative ethics? First, the administrators, the leaders, they’re not neutral. You can’t be neutral. They exercise discretion and they’re part of the policy making process. So some of the significant ethical principles that we can discuss or autonomy. Public leaders control their own course of action. Veracity. That means the public administrator is obliged to tell the truth. Beneficence. They act for the good or in the interests of someone else. The public. Non-maleficence, do no harm, prevent damage to others. Justice. Cases that are the same must be treated the same. Unlike cases must be treated differently. That’s being judicious. Prudence, enacting, and being wise in decisions that one makes. Loyalty, being faithful to another person, standing by your actions and promises. And the public interest. Enhancing the greater interest of the public rather than your own personal interest. Frederick Mosher, back in 1968, when early Public Administration theorists said that responsibility might be the most important word in the vocabulary of a public administrator. Another approach is called design approach to ethics. With BEC States, you begin with the assumption of uncertainty and acknowledge anything that’s AMP, ambiguities. You define the problem in a narrow way. You consider constraints of time and require pursuing different solutions at the same time. You also consider, consider the public organization in which you work in its culture. When you making that decision. What changes in the organization structure and culture that have to be made so that it’s Morse, supportive in more conducive to ethical conduct and less resistant to being unethical. And then the public manager must think strategically. There are many good textbooks, many good articles on public service ethics. And here are just a few of the sources that I used. Feel free to go back and read through those. Consider others.

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