Application of Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models Essay

This article is an essay about the application of the biomedical and biopsychosocial model in nursing. It also includes a reflection on how biopsychosocial perspectives were applied in nursing practice. Study it to learn how to write similar essays and gain insights into how you can get expert essay writing help.

Application of Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models Essay

Definition of Health

What is Health?

According to World Health Organization (WHO,2003) health is defined as “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Every human being on earth desires a good health. Good health assists us to gain better value in life. When health is affected, every patient who suffers from any kind of health disorder or illness is usually in a fragile condition of mind or curious. So the approach toward them by medical practitioners should be to explain their current situation and help them.

Models of Health

There are few models of health created and used in hospitals or clinics in order to guide medical practitioners in treating the patient. They include the biomedical model, social model, and biopsychosocial model. Most commonly used in practice today are the biomedical model and the biopsychosocial model.

The Biomedical Model and The Biopsychosocial Model.

Before the development of the biopsychosocial model, the biomedical model was used in practice. The biomedical model states that good health is the freedom from pain, defect or disease. It mainly focuses on physical factors that affect health such as biochemistry, physiology and pathology of disease. It does not include social or psychological factors into account.

In 1977 George L. Engel questioned the dominance of the biomedical model via well known journal, Science. He also explained the need for a new model that was more holistic. He said that ” in order to provide a basis for understanding the determinants of disease and arriving at rational treatments and patterns of healthcare, a medical model must also take into account the patient and the social context in which he lives”. So in the same year biopsychosocial model was theorized by L.Engel.

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According to O’Sullivan & Schmitz (2007, p.28), patient outcomes improved considerably when they are treated with consideration, educated on their condition, and shown respect by the therapist and staff of the hospital. When treated as such, rehabilitative goals set by therapists can be attained as patients have more confidence in themselves and in their therapist and are willing to go the extra mile to regain normal functional independence. This particular approach is known as the Biopsychosocial method.

Recently Borrell-Carrio, Suchman, and Epstein (2004, p. 576) said,

“The biopsychosocial model is both a philosophy of clinical care and a practical clinical guide. Philosophically, it is a way of understanding how suffering, disease and illness are affected by multiple levels of organization, from the societal to the molecular. At the practical level, it is a way of understanding the patient’s subjective experience as an essential contributor to accurate diagnosis, health outcomes, and humane care”.

The biopsychosocial model is a more complete conceptual framework that emphasizes on biological, social and psychological factors, which all play an important role in human functioning when the person is affected by any disease or illness. A.Fava (2008, pg 200) states that the” study of every disease must include the individual, his/her body and his /her surrounding environment as an essential component of the total health system.

Reflection Using the Biopsychosocial Model

During my first clinical placement, I had the opportunity to observe and note the implementation of the biopsychosocial model by the physiotherapist in the treatment of patients in a private hospital. Implementation of the biopsychosocial model is clearly seen in a patient who is 23 years old, Mr K. When the patient first entered the centre Mr X, who is the physiotherapist responsible greet Mr K with smile on his face and introduce himself to the patient. According to the doctor’s report, Mr K had minor operation due to his right anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) tear few weeks before.

Mr X begins his session by assessing the patient subjectively. Throughout the assessment, Mr X asked the patient questions regarding his symptom and social life which leads to the symptom. At first, Mr K refused to respond to Mr x’s questions. But after a few minutes of conversation, Mr X managed to gain Mr K’s response. This is maybe because Mr X listen to the patient carefully and maintained eye contact with the patient which make the patient to trust him.

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Richard S Irwin (2006, page 573) states that good physiotherapy-patient communication includes “understanding”(18%) and “talks to me” (15%) were the most important characteristics, followed by “cares” (10%), “listens” (8%) and “respect” (7%). Pekka Larivaara (2001, page 9) states that skilled physiotherapists convey warmth and attention through their forward posture, eye contact and expressive face, gesture and tone. At the end of subjective assessment, Mr X got to know that Mr K is a professional football player and he had lateral ankle ligament spran three years before.

Application Of Biomedical And Biopsychosocial Models Essay
A nurse caring for a patient

Before beginning the physical examination, Mr X politely asked the patient to lie on the examination table. After getting the patient’s consent the physiotherapist palpated below the knee of the patient to check for any different symptoms such as swelling or redness around the calf muscle. According to Petty (2004, page 340), informed consent is paramount to ensure that the patient fully understands what is being carried out and that he has the right to refuse or accept the treatment given. Then physiotherapist measured the range of motion of flexion of the patient’s affected knee.

During the measurement, Mr X observed the patient’s facial expression. He realized that the patient had difficulty flexing his knee after a certain level. He also noticed that the patient is depressed and down due to his recent condition which prevents him from carrying out his daily activities. So the physiotherapist motivated the patient and gave him moral support. He promised the patient that he would be back to his normal lifestyle within 6 months.

Before the physiotherapist began his treatment, he explained about the treatment which going to be given to the patient. He also explained the benefits and outcomes of the treatment. He positioned the patient in supine lying by placing a pillow under his head and a towel under his thigh. This is to make sure that the patient is in a comfortable position to receive the treatment. Petty (2004, page 341) states that a patient’s comfort is paramount as it induces relaxation and enhances adherence to the treatment.

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 Biomedical And Biopsychosocial Model
Biomedical and biopsychosocial model in nursing

Patients’ comfort during treatment sessions is of supreme importance to their belief in the medical professionals, treatment, and their capability to relax when they undergo treatment plus patients’ choice of treatment positions should be respected. The physiotherapist also made sure that the height of the examination table is parallel to his waist level to ensure that he can easily reach the patient. The physiotherapist then applied a cold pack and TENSE to the patient to relieve his pain. The treatment session took place for 15 minutes.

Later, Mr X taught the patient how to use the elbow crutches. In the beginning stages, the patient found it difficult to walk with the crutches. But after the physiotherapist assisted him for a few hours, Mr K manage to walk with the crutches. According to O’Sullivan, the supportive use of hands can allay fears and instill confidence while ensuring safety. The key to success in using guided movement is to intersperse active practice with guided movement, providing only as much assistance as needed and removing assistance as soon as possible.

He came for treatment continuously for a few weeks. The physiotherapist praised him for his success in walking throughout the treatment period. According to Pekka Larivaara (2001), a patient-centered physiotherapist acknowledges and appreciates the patient’s effort to cope with his/her symptoms and problems.

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Application Of Biomedical And Biopsychosocial Models Essay



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