Develop the minimum model to explain variation in systolic blood pressure at baseline exam by considering the following variables: age, body mass index, sex, education level and antihypertensive medication use. When developing your minimum model you should also consider whether sex is an effect modifier of the relationship between systolic blood pressure and use of hypertensive medication.

1. Describe the characteristics of the sample at the baseline exam. [Hint: Make sure you
describe the all of the variables including demographic and clinical]
2. Is there an association between the use of anti-hypertensive medication at baseline and
participant sex?
3. Is there an association between the use of anti-hypertensive medication at baseline and the
education level of the participant?
4. Is there a difference in systolic blood pressure at baseline between participants with
different education levels?
5. Is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure at baseline the same for
participants using anti-hypertensive medication and those not using anti-hypertensive
medication?
6. In a model that predicts systolic blood pressure at baseline exam, how much variation is
explained by age and body mass index? Which variable is most important? Describe how
systolic blood pressure changes with age. Describe how systolic blood pressure changes with
body mass index.
7. Develop the minimum model to explain variation in systolic blood pressure at baseline exam
by considering the following variables: age, body mass index, sex, education level and antihypertensive medication use. When developing your minimum model you should also
consider whether sex is an effect modifier of the relationship between systolic blood
pressure and use of hypertensive medication.
8. Is there a change in the proportion of the sample who use anti-hypertensive medication
between the baseline and follow-up examinations? If so, over what time period has this
change occurred?
9. (Optional question) Is there any potential bias introduced into the follow-up data due to
missing data? Explain your answer and provide evidence. Hint: are the participant
demographic characteristics the same for those with and without data for the follow-up
examination, and what impact may this have?