How have ideas about humans and gods changed from Antiquity to Middle Ages and how is that reflected in the art?

ART HISTORY- RELATIONSHIP OF HUMANS TO GODS

How have ideas about humans and gods changed from Antiquity to Middle Ages and how is that reflected in the art?

*use* the *two powerpoint files* to write the various relationships between humans and the divine in art.

*Rubric:** 

A fully developed essay (intro, 2 body paragraphs, conclusion). The introduction includes a clear, well-focused thesis or topic sentence. In the body paragraphs, main ideas are clear and are well supported by detailed and accurate information presented in a logical progression. Specific visual and contextual evidence is accurately used to analyze the similarities between the two works. Specific visual and contextual evidence is accurately used to analyze the differences between the two works. The meaning transmitted in the selected works of art is accurately explained. The conclusion is strong. Vocabulary and terminology are used appropriately and correctly. No grammatical or spelling errors

Romanesque Europe

2

Europe around 1100

Western Europe around 1100.

Important Elements of Romanesque

Architecture Recognize the following architectural features:

• Ambulatory – major innovation

• Radiating chapels

• Portal and its parts

• Nave, transept, and side aisles

• Cruciform (overall shape of building)

• Crossing square

• Bays (3-D modules of nave and side aisles)

• Gallery/ tribune level

• Clerestory (usually small in Romanesque churches)

• Barrel vault (the norm for Romanesque naves)

• Groin vault (less common, used more in side aisles)

• Cloister (element in a monastic abbey church)

3

Reliquary statue of Sainte-Foy, late 10th to early 11th century with later additions. Gold, silver gilt, jewels, and cameos over a

wooden core, 2’ 9 1/2″ high. Treasury, Sainte-Foy, Conques.

4

Aerial view of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France, mid 11th to early 12th century.

5

Interior of Saint-Etienne (looking east), Vignory,

France, 1050-1057.

6

Plan of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France, 1050-

1057. (1) nave, (2) aisles, (3) choir, (4)

ambulatory, (5) radiating chapels.

7

Interior (looking east) of Sant Vicenç,

Cardona, Spain, ca. 1029–1040.

8

Interior (looking east) of Saint-Philibert, Tournus, France.

Vaults, ca. 1060.

9

10

Aerial view (looking northwest) of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120.

Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120 (after Kenneth John Conant).

11

Interior of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120.

12

Interior of Saint James, Santiago de

Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075–1120.

13

14

BERNARDUS GELDUINUS, Christ in

Majesty, relief in the ambulatory of Saint-

Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1096.

Marble, 4’ 2” high.

Christ in Majesty (Maiestas Domini) with apostles, lintel over the doorway of the abbey church, Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, France,

1019–1020. Marble, 2’X 7’.

15

Restored cutaway view of the third abbey church (“Cluny III”; looking northeast), Cluny, France, 1088-1130 (John Burge).

16

17

Historiated capital (top) and general view (bottom; looking southeast) of the cloister of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France,

ca. 1100–1115. Relief: limestone, 6’high.

Abbot Durandus, relief on a pier in the cloister of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100-1115. Limestone, 6’ high.

18

Notre-Dame, Fontenay, 1139-1147

19

The Romanesque church portal (John Burge). 20

Diagram of a Romanesque Portal

21 South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1135.

Second Coming of Christ, tympanum of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115-1135.

22

23

Lions and Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?),

trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac,

France, ca. 1115–1130.

24

GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, 21’ wide at base.

25

Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120–1132.

Nave of the abbey church, Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France, ca. 1100. 26

27

Christ in Majesty, apse, Santa María de Mur, near

Lérida, Spain, mid-twelfth century. Fresco, 24’ X 22’. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

28

Virgin and Child (Morgan Madonna), from

the Auvergne, France, second half of

twelfth century. Painted wood, 2’ 7” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

(gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1916).

29

Head reliquary of Saint Alexander, from Stavelot

Abbey, Belgium, 1145. Silver repoussé (partly gilt),

gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel, 1’ 5 1/2” high. Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels.

30

Interior of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, vaulted ca.

1115–1120.

31Plan of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France.

32Interior (left) and lateral section (right) of Durham Cathedral, England ,begun ca.1093.

33Plan of Durham Cathedral, England (after Kenneth John Conant).

34

EADWINE THE SCRIBE, Eadwine the

scribe at work, folio 283 verso of the

Eadwine Psalter, ca. 1160–1170. Ink and

tempera on vellum. Trinity College,

Cambridge.

Funeral procession to Westminster Abbey (top) and Battle of Hastings (bottom), details of the Bayeux Tapestry,

from Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, ca. 1070-1080. Embroidered wool on linen, 1’ 8” high (entire length of fabric 229’ 8”). Centre Buillaume le Conquerant, Bayeux. 35

1

Gothic Europe

2

Europe around 1200

Europe around 1200.

West facade of the abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1135–1140.

3

4

Ambulatory and radiating

chapels, abbey church, Saint-

Denis, France, 1140–1144.

Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144 (after Sumner Crosby) 5

West facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France,

ca. 1145-1155.

6

Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (looking north), Chartres, France, as rebuilt after 1194.

7

8

Plan of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after

1194 (after Paul Frankl).

9Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.

10

Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues,

central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres

Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.

11

Interior of Chartres Cathedral (looking east),

Chartres, France, begun 1194.

© 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.

Stonemasons and sculptors, detail of a stained-glass window in the northernmost radiating chapel in the ambulatory,

Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1200-1220

12

13

Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle

Verrière), detail of a window in the choir of Chartres

Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170. Stained glass, full

height 16’.

14

Rose window and lancets, north transept,

Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220.

Stained glass, rose window 43’ in diameter.

15

Saint Theodore, jamb statue, Porch of the Martyrs (left doorway), south

transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1230.

16

Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch

of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept,

Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230.

Diagram (a) and drawings of rib vaults with semicircular (b) and pointed (c) arches (John Burge). 17

18

Notre-Dame (looking northwest), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca. 1180–1200; remodeled after 1225.

Cutaway view of a typical French Gothic cathedral (John Burge). (1) pinnacle, (2) flying buttress, (3) vaulting web, (4) diagonal ribs, (5) transverse rib, (6) springing, (7) clerestory, (8) oculus, (9) lancet, (10) triforium, (11) nave arcade, (12) compound pier with responds.

19

20

Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (John Burge).

21

Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1225–1290.

Nave (looking west) of Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, begun 1211; west end ca. 1260–1290.

22

Annunciation and Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230-1255 23

24

ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE

CORMONT, and RENAUD DE

CORMONT, west facade of Amiens

Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220.

25

ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE

CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT,

interior of Amiens Cathedral (looking east), Amiens,

France, begun 1220.

26

ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE

CORMONT, AND RENAUD DE CORMONT,

vaults, clerestory, and triforium of the choir of Amiens

Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220.

27

Christ (Beau Dieu), trumeau statue of central doorway, west

facade, Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, ca. 1220–1235.

28

Interior of the upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle,

Paris, France, 1243–1248.

29

Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), Notre-Dame, Paris, France,

early fourteenth century.

30

West facade of Saint-Maclou, Rouen, France, ca.

1500–1514.

31

Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks,

dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible,

from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and

gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.

God as architect of the world, folio 1 verso of a

moralized Bible, from Paris, France, ca. 1220-

1230. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 1 ½” X 8 ¼”. Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.

32

33

Abraham and the three angels, folio 7 verso of

the Psalter of Saint Louis, from Paris, France,

1253–1270. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on

vellum, 5”X 3 1/2”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

34

MASTER HONORÉ, David anointed by Samuel and battle of

David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of the Breviary of Philippe le Bel,

from Paris, France, 1296. Ink and tempera on vellum, 7 7/8”X 4 7/8”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

JEAN PUCELLE, Betrayal of Christ and Annunciation, folios 15 verso and 16 recto of the Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, from Paris, France, ca. 1325–1328. Ink and tempera on vellum, each page 3 1/2″ X 2 1/2″. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

(Cloisters Collection).

35

36

Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.

Aerial view of Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220–1258; west facade completed 1265; spire ca.

1320–1330.

37

38

Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.

39

Interior of Salisbury Cathedral (looking east),

Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.

40

ROBERT and WILLIAM VERTUE, fan vaults of the chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London, England, 1503–

1519.

41

GERHARD OF COLOGNE, aerial view of Cologne Cathedral (looking northwest), Cologne, Germany, begun 1248;

nave, facade, and towers completed 1880.

42

GERHARD OF COLOGNE, interior of Cologne Cathedral (looking east), Cologne, Germany, choir completed 1322.