ART HISTORY- RELATIONSHIP OF HUMANS TO GODS
Europe around 1100
Western Europe around 1100.
Important Elements of Romanesque
Architecture Recognize the following architectural features:
• Ambulatory – major innovation
• Radiating chapels
• Portal and its parts
• Nave, transept, and side aisles
• Cruciform (overall shape of building)
• Crossing square
• Bays (3-D modules of nave and side aisles)
• Gallery/ tribune level
• Clerestory (usually small in Romanesque churches)
• Barrel vault (the norm for Romanesque naves)
• Groin vault (less common, used more in side aisles)
• Cloister (element in a monastic abbey church)
Reliquary statue of Sainte-Foy, late 10th to early 11th century with later additions. Gold, silver gilt, jewels, and cameos over a
wooden core, 2’ 9 1/2″ high. Treasury, Sainte-Foy, Conques.
Aerial view of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France, mid 11th to early 12th century.
Interior of Saint-Etienne (looking east), Vignory,
Plan of Saint-Etienne, Vignory, France, 1050-
1057. (1) nave, (2) aisles, (3) choir, (4)
ambulatory, (5) radiating chapels.
Interior (looking east) of Sant Vicenç,
Cardona, Spain, ca. 1029–1040.
Interior (looking east) of Saint-Philibert, Tournus, France.
Vaults, ca. 1060.
Aerial view (looking northwest) of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120.
Plan of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120 (after Kenneth John Conant).
Interior of Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070-1120.
Interior of Saint James, Santiago de
Compostela, Spain, ca. 1075–1120.
BERNARDUS GELDUINUS, Christ in
Majesty, relief in the ambulatory of Saint-
Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1096.
Marble, 4’ 2” high.
Christ in Majesty (Maiestas Domini) with apostles, lintel over the doorway of the abbey church, Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, France,
1019–1020. Marble, 2’X 7’.
Restored cutaway view of the third abbey church (“Cluny III”; looking northeast), Cluny, France, 1088-1130 (John Burge).
Historiated capital (top) and general view (bottom; looking southeast) of the cloister of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France,
ca. 1100–1115. Relief: limestone, 6’high.
Abbot Durandus, relief on a pier in the cloister of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1100-1115. Limestone, 6’ high.
Notre-Dame, Fontenay, 1139-1147
The Romanesque church portal (John Burge). 20
Diagram of a Romanesque Portal
21 South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1135.
Second Coming of Christ, tympanum of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115-1135.
Lions and Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?),
trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac,
France, ca. 1115–1130.
GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, 21’ wide at base.
Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120–1132.
Nave of the abbey church, Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France, ca. 1100. 26
Christ in Majesty, apse, Santa María de Mur, near
Lérida, Spain, mid-twelfth century. Fresco, 24’ X 22’. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Virgin and Child (Morgan Madonna), from
the Auvergne, France, second half of
twelfth century. Painted wood, 2’ 7” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
(gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1916).
Head reliquary of Saint Alexander, from Stavelot
Abbey, Belgium, 1145. Silver repoussé (partly gilt),
gilt bronze, gems, pearls, and enamel, 1’ 5 1/2” high. Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels.
Interior of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France, vaulted ca.
31Plan of Saint-Étienne, Caen, France.
32Interior (left) and lateral section (right) of Durham Cathedral, England ,begun ca.1093.
33Plan of Durham Cathedral, England (after Kenneth John Conant).
EADWINE THE SCRIBE, Eadwine the
scribe at work, folio 283 verso of the
Eadwine Psalter, ca. 1160–1170. Ink and
tempera on vellum. Trinity College,
Funeral procession to Westminster Abbey (top) and Battle of Hastings (bottom), details of the Bayeux Tapestry,
from Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, ca. 1070-1080. Embroidered wool on linen, 1’ 8” high (entire length of fabric 229’ 8”). Centre Buillaume le Conquerant, Bayeux. 35