How does an idea turn to a hypothesis and then to a theory? · In scientific reasoning, a hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done. A theory, on the other hand, is supported by evidence: it’s a principle formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. (Hypothesis- An idea that has been tested many, many times, pretty much works, still has some issues that might be worked out.) (Theory- The BEST explanation of the facts so far. Predictable. Testable. Most scientist agree that it is probably right.)

Study Guide

1. How does an idea turn to a hypothesis and then to a theory?

· In scientific reasoning, a hypothesis is constructed before any applicable research has been done. A theory, on the other hand, is supported by evidence: it’s a principle formed as an attempt to explain things that have already been substantiated by data. (Hypothesis- An idea that has been tested many, many times, pretty much works, still has some issues that might be worked out.) (Theory- The BEST explanation of the facts so far. Predictable. Testable. Most scientist agree that it is probably right.)

2. What is a scientific fact?

· An objective and verifiable observation, in contrast with a hypothesis or theory, which is intended to explain or interpret facts.(An observation) 

3. What is the difference between a theory and a law?

· A law is a description of an observed phenomenon in the natural world that hold true every time it is tested. It doesn’t explain why something is true; it just states that it is true. A theory, on the other hand, explains observations that are gathered during the scientific process.

4. Describe the Big Bang.

· the rapid expansion of matter from a state of extremely high density and temperature that according to current cosmological theories marked the origin of the universe.

5. What evidence is there of the Big Bang?

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6. When did the Big Bang occur?

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7. What element was produce by the Big Bang? Why this element?

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8. How were all the elements up to iron created?

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9. What is the planetary nebula theory?

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10. How old is the solar system?

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11. How were all the elements from iron to uranium created?

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12. What is the theory of plate tectonics?

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13. What was the evidence that Wegener had to support his theory?

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14. What evidence did he lack? Why? When was this evidence found to support his theory?

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15. What is Pangaea? When did it form?

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16. How did scientist discover that the Earth’s magnetic field reverses? How did this support the theory of plate tectonics?

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17. Know the difference between felsic, intermediate, and mafic rock.

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18. Know the densities of the lithosphere/ asthenosphere/ and mantle.

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19. What is the lithosphere? What is the asthenosphere?

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20. What causes the Earth’s plates to move?

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21. What are the two types of tectonic plates?

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22. What are the three ways the plates can interact with each other?

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23. Draw, label, and describe an oceanic divergent boundary. Give an example.

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24. Draw, label, and describe an oceanic vs. continental convergent boundary. Give an example.

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25. Draw, label, and describe an oceanic vs. oceanic convergent boundary. Give an example.

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26. Draw, label, and describe a continental vs. continental convergent boundary. Give an example.

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27. What is a transform boundary?

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28. What is an island arc? What type of boundary creates an island arc?

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29. Give an example of an island arc.

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30. What is a hotspot? Give an example of a hot spot on the continental crust and on the oceanic crust.

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31. What is a mineral?

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32. What is a proton? A neutron? An electron?

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33. What is a rock?

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34. How is the periodic chart organized?

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35. List several physical properties that we use to identify minerals.

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36. Why is color a bad identifier of the type of mineral?

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37. What are the five most common elements in the Earth’s crust?

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38. What is a silicate?

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39. Give several examples of a silicate.

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40. What is Bowen’s Reaction Series?

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41. Why is the Bowen’s Reaction Series important to the understanding of how minerals are formed?

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42. Describe feldspar.

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43. Describe quartz.

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44. Describe a mica.

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45. Describe olivine.

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46. Describe calcite.

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47. What is an igneous rock?

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48. What does the word volatiles mean?

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49. What is the difference between magma and lava?

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50. What does extrusive mean? How can you tell if a rock is extrusive?

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51. What does intrusive mean? How can you tell if a rock is intrusive?

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52. What is texture mean when talking about igneous rocks?

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53. List and describe the different igneous rock textures.

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54. Describe using texture and magma type the following rocks. Also list where the location the igneous rock cooled.

Granite, rhyolite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro

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55. Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering.

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56. What are clastic sedimentary rocks?

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57. What are nonclastic sedimentary rocks?

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58. What are organic sedimentary rocks?

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59. What is the difference between clean and dirty sand sediments? What does it tell you about where the sediment was deposited?

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60. What is do it mean if the sediments are rounded vs. having a lot of angles?

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61. What is the difference between a conglomerate and a breccia?

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62. Where was shale, mudstone, and claystone deposited?

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63. What is cross bedding and what does it tell us?

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64. What is the most common sedimentary rock? What are the next two most common?

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65. What sort of environment would limestone be deposited?

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66. What are evaporate sedimentary rock? Give some examples.

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67. What is coal? How is it formed?

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68. How does petrified wood form?

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69. What does ocean transgression and regression mean?

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70. What are the main greenhouse gases?

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71. Explain the theory of global warming.

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72. What happened to most of the Earth’s carbon dioxide?

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73. What is subduction? Which plate dives under? Why? What happens to it?

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74. What is an accretionary wedge?

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75. What sort of material is wedged onto the continental plate?

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76. What is a turbidity current? How can geologist tell in a rock layer if a turbidity current has occurred?

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77. Draw the rock cycle!

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78. If you could talk to a piece of granite and ask its complete lifecycle, what would it say???

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This is week 1 to week 6!

79. Describe Steno’s four principles.

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80. Rock layers at the top of a geologic column are what relative age? What about rock layers at the bottom?

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81. There is pieces of shale imbedded in a basalt sill. Which is older? Why?

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82. There is a basalt sill cutting through a sandstone layer. Which is older? Why?

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83. What is uniformitarianism? Who first promoted this idea? What was the completing idea?

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84. What is an unconformity?

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85. List and describe the different unconformities.

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86. What is the principle of fossil succession? What came up with it?

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87. Why is the principle of fossil succession important? How is it used in geology?

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88. What is absolute age dating?

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89. Describe how radioactive age dating works.

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90. What is a half-life?

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91. Explain why or why not geologist could carbon 14 age date hair from an 18,000 year old wooly mammoth.

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92. Explain why or why not geologist could carbon 14 age date bone material from a 63,000,000 year old T-Rex fossil.

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93. Which isotopes do geologist use to age date very old rock?

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94. Explain why you could or couldn’t radioactively age date basalt.

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95. Explain why you could or couldn’t radioactively age date sandstone.

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96. What is the difference between micro and macro evolution?

97. What is the meaning of the “Goldilock” zone?

98. How are geologic time periods bounded (start and ending)?

99. Describe the Hadean Eon. What occurs in this this time period? How much of Earth history does this take up?

100. What was the importance of stromatolites?

101. What is a craton?

102. List the different time periods and list several important events that happened in that time period.

103. What probably caused most of Earth mass extinctions?

104. Draw and label a volcano.

105. What is an igneous sill? How is it different from a dike?

106. What is a volcanic neck?

107. What is a batholith?

108. Describe basaltic magma.

109. Describe granitic magma.

110. Draw and describe a shield volcano.

111. How can a shield volcano cause damage? How dangerous is it?

112. What type of plate boundary would cause a shield volcano? Why?

113. List several volcanoes that are shield volcanoes.

114. Draw and describe a composite volcano.

115. How can a composite volcano cause damage? How is it dangerous?

116. Describe a pyroclastic flow.

117. Describe a lahar.

118. What type of plate boundaries would cause a composite volcano? Why?

119. List several composite cone volcanoes.

120. Describe a cinder cone.

121. Describe what a caldera is and how it is produced.

122. Describe how confining pressure can stress rocks.

123. Explain how tensional stresses are different from compressional stresses which are different from shear stresses.

124. List several places where tensional, compressional, and shear stresses are currently taking place.

125. What is elastic deformation?

126. What is brittle deformation?

127. What is an anticline?

128. What is a syncline?

129. What is a plunging fold?

130. How is a dome different from a basin?

131. What is strike and dip?

132. Draw a normal fault. Label the hanging wall, footwall, and show direction of motion.

133. What is a horst? What is a graben? What type of stress causes these?

134. Explain how truncated ridges are formed.

135. What is a thrust fault?

136. What is a strike-slip fault?

137. List several features that occur on the surface of the Earth that are caused by faults.

138. How would you be able to tell the difference between a left lateral vs. right lateral strike-slip fault?

139. What is the elastic rebound theory?

140. Draw a fault. Show where the focus and epicenter is.

141. What is the difference between a focus and an epicenter?

142. What are the three types of seismic waves? Describe how the energy is transferred through the rock.

143. Which type of seismic wave doesn’t go through liquids? Why?

144. What is a seismograph and how does it work?

145. How many seismographs are needed to find the location of the earthquake?

146. What are the main ways earthquakes can cause damage?

147. What is liquefaction?

148. How are tsunamis produced?

149. What actions should you take if you are in an earthquake in a building in California?

150. What actions should you take if you are in an earthquake if you are outside a building in California?

151. What are the three ways of orogeny (mountain building)?

152. Describe how mountains can be built by volcanism. List several mountains built this way.

153. Describe how mountains can be built by folding and thrust faults. List several mountains built this way.

154. Describe how mountains can be built by fault blocking. List several mountains built this way.

155. Explain what riparian water rights are.

156. Explain what prior appropriation water rights are.

157. Where is most of Earth’s water?

158. Where is most of Earth’s fresh water?

159. Define unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and water table.

160. Define aquiclude, unconfined aquifer, and confined aquifer.

161. What is a cone of depression when talking about groundwater?

162. How are sinkholes produced?

163. What is saltwater intrusion?

164. List California’s three main aqueducts and list where the start and end.

165. Describe how the Sierra Nevada Mountains were formed.

166. Describe how the Klamath Mountains were formed.

167. Describe how the Coastal Mountains were formed.

168. Describe how the Central Valley was formed.

169. What does the landforms of the Basin and Range look like? What type of crustal movement is occurring here?

170. What are terranes?

171. What is the Franciscan formation? What type of rock does it contain?

172. What is the Tuscan formation? What type of rock is it and why is it important to Butte County?

173. Why does the Transverse Range trend east/ west vs. north/south?

174. Why do most mountain ranges in California trend north/south?

175. Why aren’t most California rock that old? Most of our rocks are younger than 200 mya.