Discuss the purpose of the literature review and in which situation will you use it? Discuss also what are the challenges that nurses are facing today when they have to do a literature review?

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Discuss the purpose of the literature review and in which situation will you use it? Discuss also what are the challenges that nurses are facing today when they have to do a literature review?

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Chapter 5

Literature Reviews: Finding and Critiquing Evidence

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Question

Tell whether the statement is true or false:

A research literature review is a written summary of evidence on a research problem.

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Answer

True

A research literature review is a written summary of evidence on a research problem.

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Purposes of a Literature Review

  • Identification of a research problem
  • Orientation to what is known/not known
  • Determination of gaps or inconsistencies in a body of research
  • Determination of a need to replicate a study
  • Identification of clinical interventions that need to be tested

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Purposes of a Literature Review (cont.)

  • Identification of relevant conceptual frameworks for a research problem
  • Identification of suitable designs and data collection methods
  • Identification of experts who could be used as consultants on a project
  • Assistance in interpreting findings and developing implications

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Sources of Information in a Research Literature Review

  • Principal reliance on primary sources (research reports written by researchers who conducted the study)
  • Less reliance on secondary sources (summaries of studies by others)
  • Peripheral use of anecdotal reports, opinion articles, case reports

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Question

Tell whether the statement is true or false:

An ancestry approach uses pivotal studies to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it.

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Answer

False

Ancestry approach: tracking down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report

Descendancy approach: using a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it

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Finding Studies

  • Ancestry approach: tracking down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report
  • Descendancy approach: using a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it

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Types of Search in Electronic Databases

Subject search

Search for topics or keywords in the database

Text word search

Search for specific words in text fields of the database record

Author search

Search for a specific researcher

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Key Electronic Databases for Nurse Researchers

  • CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature)
  • MEDLINE (Medical Literature on-Line)

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Example of a Printout from a CINAHL Search

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Example of a Printout from a
PubMed Search

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Abstracting and Recording Information

  • Coding the studies
  • Literature review protocols
  • Literature review matrices

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Question

Matrices are a convenient means of abstracting and organizing information for a literature review. What is the purpose of evaluation matrix?

Record methodologic features of a set of studies.

Record research findings.

Record quality assessment information.

Record thematic analysis of the retrieved information.

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Answer

C

A reviewer might use a methodologic matrix to record methodologic features of a set of studies, a set of results matrices to record research findings, and an evaluation matrix to record quality assessment information. The use of such matrices facilitates thematic analysis of the retrieved information.

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Matrix

  • Methodologic
  • Results
  • Evaluation

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Example of a Literature Review Protocol

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Critiquing Studies and Evaluating the Evidence

  • Research critiques of individual studies
  • Evaluating a body of research

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Analyzing and Synthesizing Information

Theme Analysis:

  • Substantive themes
  • Theoretical themes
  • Methodologic themes

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Preparing a Written Literature Review

  • Organizing the review
  • Writing a literature review

1. Content

2. Style

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Guidelines for Critiquing
Literature Reviews

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Chapter 6

Theoretical Frameworks

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

A theory is an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

A theory is an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena.

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Question

What is a descriptive theory?

An abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena

A theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it

A theory attempt to describe large segments of the human experience

A theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Answer

B

Classical theory: an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena

Descriptive theory: a theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it

Grand theory: a theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experience

Middle-range theory: a theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Theory

An abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena

  • Classical theory: an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena
  • Descriptive theory: a theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it

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Theory (cont.)

  • Grand theory: a theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experience
  • Middle-range theory: a theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Schematic models are graphic, theory-driven representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of words.

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Answer

True

Schematic models are graphic, theory-driven representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of words.

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Conceptual Models

  • Deal with abstractions, assembled in a coherent scheme
  • Represent a less formal attempt than theories to explain phenomena
  • Do not have formal propositions about relationships among phenomena

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Framework

  • Theoretical framework (based on theory)
  • Conceptual framework (based on a conceptual model)

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Commonalities between Theories and Conceptual Models

  • Use concepts as building blocks
  • Require conceptual definitions of key concepts
  • Can be depicted in a schematic model
  • Are created by humans
  • Are developed inductively

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Commonalities between Theories and Conceptual Models (cont.)

  • Cannot be proven—they are supported to greater or lesser degrees
  • Can be used to generate hypotheses
  • Can serve as a stimulus to research

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5-Step Process for Developing Conceptual Definitions

Develop a preliminary definition.

Do an in-depth literature review.

Identify exemplary cases.

Map the concept’s meaning.

State the revised conceptual
definition.

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Conceptual Models of Nursing

Formal explanations of what nursing practice is

Four concepts central to models of nursing:

  • Person
  • Environment
  • Health
  • Nursing

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Conceptual Models Used Frequently by Nurse Researchers

Conceptual models of nursing:

Roy’s Adaptation Model

Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings

Other models developed by nurses:

Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM)

Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory

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Examples of Non-Nursing Models by Nurse Researchers

  • Becker’s Health Belief Model (HBM)
  • Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory of Stress and Coping
  • Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
  • Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

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The Use of Theories or Models in Quantitative Research

  • Testing a theory
  • Testing two competing theories
  • Using a theory/model as an organizing structure
  • Fitting a problem into theory
  • Developing an original theory/model

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Question

What type of theory do some qualitative researchers seek to develop that provide data-driven explanations to account for phenomena under study?

Grounded

Ethnography

Phenomenology

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Answer

A

Some qualitative researchers specifically seek to develop grounded theories, data-driven explanations to account for phenomena under study through inductive processes. Ethnography is cultural theories—ideational and materialistic. Phenomenology is the phenomenologic theory of human experience.

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Theories in Qualitative Research

  • Substantive theory—conceptualizations of the target phenomena
  • Theory embedded in a research tradition

Grounded theory (symbolic interactionism)

Ethnography (cultural theories: ideational and materialistic)

Phenomenology (phenomenologic theory of human experience)

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Examples of Questions to Assess a
Model or Theory

  • Clarity: Are key concepts defined? Are definitions clear?
  • Complexity: Is the theory sufficiently rich? Overly complex?
  • Grounding: Is there an empirical basis for the theory?

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Examples of Questions to Assess a Model or Theory (cont.)

  • Appropriateness: Are key concepts within the domain of nursing?
  • Importance: Will testing the theory contribute to nursing’s evidence base?
  • Competition: Are there theories that better explain the key phenomenon?

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