What are the challenges encountered in data collection as it applies to research? What are the types of interview technique when interviewing participants? List your preferences and tell us why?

What are the challenges encountered in data collection as it applies to research? What are the types of interview technique when interviewing participants? List your preferences and tell us why?

*Remember APA guidelines regarding references and citations in your discussion posts.

Discussion Post Rubric:

Each posting and Reading Reflection:

Criteria

1.25 Point

1 Point

0.75 Point

0

Participation

Weight 25.00%

100 %

3 Posts

80 %

2 Posts

60 %

1 Post

0 %

0 Posts

Quality of information

Weight 25.00%

100 %

Information is clear and relates to the topic

80 %

Information is somewhat clear and might relate to the topic

60 %

The information has little relation to the topic and is not clearly displayed

0 %

Information is not clear and it does not relate to the topic

Resources

Weight 25.00%

100 %

Provides relevant resources using APA guidelines

80 %

Provides relevant resources without APA guidelines

60 %

Limited on the resources provided with major errors in APA

0 %

Does not provide any resources

Critical Thinking

Weight 25.00%

100 %

Enhances the critical thinking process through premise reflection

80 %

Enhances the critical thinking process without premise reflection

60 %

Does enhance the critical thinking process in a very limited manner

0 %

Does not enhance the critical thinking process

Theory of Interpersonal Relations: Hildegard Peplau

Chapter 14

Overview of Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Original four phases in nurse–patient relationships:

Orientation

Identification

Exploitation

Resolution

In 1997, the phase of identification and exploitation were combined resulting in three phases:

Orientation

Working

Termination

Three Phases of Nurse-Patient Relationships

Orientation: a health problem emerges that results in “felt need,” and professional assistance is sought

Working: patient identifies those who can help and the nurse permits exploration of feelings and begins to focus the patient on achievement of new goals

Resolution (termination): time when patient gradually adopts new goals and frees himself or herself from identification with nurse

Six Original Nursing Roles of Nurse–Patient Relationship

Role of the stranger

Role of resource person

Teaching role

Leadership role

Surrogate role

Counseling role

Revised Nursing Roles

Teacher: nurse provides knowledge about a need or problem

Resource: nurse provides information to understand problem

Counselor: nurse helps recognize, face, accept, and resolve problems

Revised Nursing Roles

Leader: nurse initiates and maintains group goals through interaction

Technical expert: nurse provides physical care using clinical skills

Surrogate: nurse may take the place of another

Other Concepts of the Theory

Anxiety: energy that emerges in response to a perceived threat to security

Communication: closely linked with anxiety; involves verbal/nonverbal communication and symbolic meaning behind communication

Pattern integrations: enables transformation of energy into patterns of action that bring satisfaction in the face of a recurring problem

Four Types of Integrating Patterns

Complementary patterns occur when the behavior of one person fits with and complements the behavior of the other

Mutual patterns occur when the same or similar behaviors are used by both persons

Four Types of Integrating Patterns

Alternating patterns occur when different behaviors used by two persons alternate between the two persons

Antagonistic patterns may occur if the behaviors of two persons do not fit but the relationship continues

Major Concepts of Nursing According to Peplau

Person: encompasses the patient (one who has problems for which expert nursing services are needed or sought) and the nurse (a professional with particular expertise)

Environment: forces outside the organism within the context of culture

Major Concepts of Nursing According to Peplau

Health: implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living

Nursing: therapeutic, interpersonal process between the nurse and the patient

Assumptions of the Theory of Interpersonal Relations

The kind of person that the nurse becomes makes difference in what each patient will learn as he or she receives nursing care

Fostering personality development toward maturity is a function of nursing

Nursing uses principles and methods that guide the process toward resolution of interpersonal problems

Propositions of the Theory of Interpersonal Relations

The nurse–patient relationship is an interpersonal process made up of four components: client, nurse, professional expertise of nurse, and client’s problem for which expert nursing serves are sought

The nurse–patient relationship is an interpersonal process that comprises three sometime overlapping or interlocking phases

Brief Critique of Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Primarily inductive and based on observations in clinical work and environment

Theory a had foundations in established theory

Clear and easy to understand

Basic concepts are defined

Can be generalized, tested and has been utilized in practice, education, and research

Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations as a Framework for Practice

Assessment: nurse works in the orientation phase as counselor to establish a relationship with the patient and identify problems

Planning: nurse and patient are no longer strangers and are ready to move into the working phase of the relationship

Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations as a Framework for Practice

Implementation: once working phase of the relationship is achieved, nurse–patient partnership is clarified to agree upon one level of dependence/ independence expected

Evaluation: based on patient’s achievement of goals set during earlier phase of nursing process; termination phase occurs when patient’s problem is resolved and patient is ready for independence from nurse