How to apply might apply these new knowleges in their future professional work as a social worker when working with the Indigenous people of Australia.

Format : Essay

Word count : 1500

How to apply might apply these new knowleges in their future professional work as a social worker when working with the Indigenous people of Australia.

Incllude the following discussions :

· Indigenous Australians and their attachment with land (500 words)

· Indigenous Identity and Indigenous wellbeing (500 words)

· Working with Indigenous community and imporatnce of being culturally appropriate and sensitive( 500 words)

A comprehensive essay will include:

– Scholarly discussion of learning, including Indigenous perspectives of learning

– Reflection on how your learning or knowledge has changed or developed over the course of the unit –

How this new found understanding or learning has, or hasn’t, changed your world view –

How this new understanding or knowledge will be applied in a professional context

Minumum References : 10

Attachments:1
HARVARD WESTERNSYDU
REFERENCING STYLE GUIDE
Referencing …………………………………………………2
Academic honesty and plagiarism……………..2
About the Harvard WesternSydU style……..2
In-text citation: Referencing sources within
the text…………………………………………………………2
Reference list………………………………………………4
Electronic items………………………………………….5
Referencing secondary sources………………….5
Works by multiple authors…………………………6
 In-text citations…………………………….6
 Reference list ………………………………..6
Different works of the same author and
same year …………………………………………………….6
Books, book chapters and brochures …………6
 Single author …………………………………6
 Two or three authors……………………. 7
 Four to six authors……………………….. 7
 Seven or more authors…………………. 7
 No author (incl. dictionary or
encyclopaedia)……………………………… 7
 Corporate author / authoring
body……………………………………………….8
 Edited book …………………………………..8
 Chapter or article in book …………….8
 Chapter or article in an edited
book……………………………………………….8
 E-book …………………………………………..9
Journal articles, newspaper articles and
conference papers ………………………………………9
 Journal article (print version)……..9
 Journal article (full-text from
electronic database)……………………..9
 Newspaper article (available in
print)…………………………………………… 10
 Newspaper article (from electronic
database)…………………………………….. 10
 Article/Newspaper article (from
the Internet, not available in print
version)………………………………………..10
 Non-English journal article
translated into English ………………. 10
 Proceedings of meetings and
symposiums, conference papers …11
 Conference proceedings (from
electronic database)…………………….11
 Systematic reviews ………………………11
Other materials ………………………………………….11
 Acts of Parliament (includes bills)11
 Australian Bureau of Statistics ….. 12
 Brochure……………………………………… 12
 Government report…………………….. 12
 Government report (online) ……… 12
 Image on the Internet………………… 12
 Lecture (unpublished) / personal
communication ………………………….. 13
 Legal authorities (cases)…………….. 13
 Microfiche / microfilm document13
 Patent/ Trademark (electronic
database)……………………………………..14
 Podcast (from the Internet) ……….14
 Standard ………………………………………14
 Study guide ………………………………….14
 Thesis / dissertation…………………… 15
 Tutorial / lecture handout…………. 15
 Video recording, television
program or audio recording……….. 15
 Video or audio (from the
Internet)……………………………………… 15
 Web page / document on the
Internet ………………………………………. 16
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
2
18/07/2019
REFERENCING
Referencing acknowledges the sources that you use to write your essay or assignment paper. Please
see the section of this guide regarding intellectual honesty and plagiarism.
In-text citations are used throughout your writing to acknowledge the sources of your
information. The full references for the citations are then listed at the end of your assignment
paper in the Reference list.
It is important to first consult your unit outline, lecturer or tutor for the preferred citation style
for each unit you undertake.
ACADEMIC HONESTY AND PLAGIARISM
At Western Sydney University plagiarism falls within the framework of the Student Misconduct
Rule and its associated guidelines.
Further information about the importance of academic honesty is available on the Library
website.
ABOUT THE HARVARD WESTERNSYDU STYLE
The Harvard WesternSydU style is one of a number of styles of referencing or bibliographic
citation that is used widely for academic writing. It is an author-date system e.g. (Mullane 2006).
This guide covers basic explanations and examples for the most common types of citations used by
students. This citation guide is based on the author-date system used in the Style manual for
authors, editors and printers (eds Commonwealth Department of Finance and Administration &
Snooks and Co. 2002), an Australian government publication which is available at all campus
libraries. Please consult this publication for further examples and explanation:
Commonwealth Department of Finance and Administration & Snooks and Co. (eds) 2002, Style
manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Brisbane.
For further support, please contact the Library:
o Phone 02 9852 5353
o Email
o Online Librarian
IN-TEXT CITATION: REFERENCING SOURCES WITHIN THE
TEXT
Throughout the text of your paper you need to acknowledge the sources you used to write your
paper. Whenever you present a statement of evidence such as a quote, or when you use someone
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
3
18/07/2019
else’s ideas, opinions or theories in your own words (paraphrasing), you must acknowledge your
sources. Some examples of how to cite sources within your paper are given below.
If you use the name of the author(s) in your writing, place the year of publication of the work in
parentheses after the author’s name.
Mullane (2006) conducted research into the effect of…
If you refer to a work in the text of your paper, place the author’s last name and the year of
publication of the work in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
The research conclusively proved a correlation between the results (Mullane 2006).
Note: When you summarise the general idea of a source in your own words, you must cite the
author and year of publication of the work as shown below. Harvard WesternSydU style does not
require you to provide the page number unless you use a direct quote, however if you paraphrase
or summarise a specific paragraph or section you should consider including the page number.
If you directly quote fewer than 30 words, enclose the quotation by single quotation marks within
the text. The year of publication of the work along with the page number(s)* of the quote should
be provided in parentheses.
Mullane (2006, p. 118) referred to this correlation as ‘a statistical anomaly’.
* When there are no page numbers available, use a section name if it is given in the text e.g. Jones
(2008, sec. 1). Use abbreviations such as vol. (volume), vols (volumes), sec. (section), secs
(sections). If no other identifying information is available use the abbreviation n.p. (no page).
If the quotation is greater than 30 words it should be displayed in a double-spaced, indented block
(1.3 cm) without quotation marks. It should be introduced in your own words.
It was stated that:
If any similar qualitative research is to be undertaken in the future, then stringent
controls should be put in place to ensure such statistical anomalies do not occur
through lack of methodological rigor, particularly through corruption of data
inadequately stored and processed (Mullane 2006, p. 66).
When you use more than one source for a statement that you write, the citation can be presented
using semi-colons between works as follows, in alphabetical order by surname:
…and a number of studies have shown identical results (Sanders 2008; Smith 2009).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
4
18/07/2019
REFERENCE LIST
A reference list includes details of the sources cited in your paper. It starts on a separate page at
the end of your assignment paper and is titled References. Each item cited in the reference list
must have been cited in your paper. All sources appearing in the reference list must be ordered
alphabetically by surname.
All sources that you cite in your writing are listed in detail at the end of your document in a
reference list, with the exception of all personal communications, as well as dictionary entries,
newspaper articles or encyclopaedia entries where no author is ascertainable. These sources are
cited in-text only.
You may sometimes need to include sources that are not cited in your paper but which supported
your research. In Harvard WesternSydU style, when you list non-cited sources and cited sources,
the consolidated list is called a Bibliography. As with a reference list, the items should be listed in
alphabetical order.
The reference list should be single spaced, with one line space between references and no
indentation.
Italics is the preferred format for titles of books, journals and videos. Article and chapter titles are
put in single quotation marks but are not italicised.
Capitalisation in the Harvard WesternSydU style is very specific and is kept to a minimum. The
following general rules apply:
Book titles – capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title, but not the first letter of the first
word after a colon.
e.g. Ageing and aged care in Australia
Brave new brain: conquering mental illness in the era of the genome
Journal and newspaper titles – capitalise first letter of each word except ‘and’, ‘of’ etc.
e.g. Journal of Educational Psychology
Article, chapter or section titles – enclose the title in single quotation marks and capitalise only the
first letter of the first word.
e.g. ‘Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace
adversity: a literature review’
Pronouns, acronyms and abbreviations that are normally capitalised should be capitalised in the
reference list and citations. For further information on capitalisation, see examples on the
following pages for each reference type and refer to pages 190-191 of the Style manual for authors,
editors and printers (eds Commonwealth Department of Finance and Administration & Snooks
and Co. 2002).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
5
18/07/2019
Example of a reference list:
References
Andreasen, NC 2001, Brave new brain: conquering mental illness in the era of the genome, Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Copstead, L & Banasik, J 2005, Pathophysiology, 3rd edn, Saunders, Philadelphia.
Davis, M, Charles, L, Curry, MJ, Shanti, P, Prasad, S, Hewings, A et al. 2003, Challenging spatial
norms, Routledge, London.
Este, J, Warren, C, Connor, L, Brown, M, Pollard, R & O’Connor, T 2008, Life in the clickstream:
the future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed 27 May 2009,
<http://www.alliance.org.au/documents/foj_report_final.pdf>.
Ferres, K 2001, ‘Idiot box: television, urban myths and ethical scenarios’, in I Craven (ed.),
Australian cinema in the 1990s, Frank Cass, London, pp. 175-88.
Storey, KB 2004, Functional metabolism regulation and adaptation, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken,
NJ, viewed 4 April 2009, NetLibrary database.
Wentworth, WC 1984, ‘Why we need a permanent base on the moon’, The Sydney Morning
Herald, 24 January, p. 11, viewed 3 April 2009, Sydney Morning Herald Archives database.
ELECTRONIC ITEMS
When referencing electronic resources from a database you need to include the database name,
after the date that the item was viewed. If it is not clear that the source is a database, include the
word database after the name. References to items that are publicly assessable via the Internet
should include the date viewed and exact URL.
REFERENCING SECONDARY SOURCES
Sometimes you may want to quote or paraphrase a source (A) that is referred to within another
source (B). You should not cite source A as though you read it from the original work. You must
cite source A through the secondary source (B) from which you actually read it.
For example, the book you are using is written by Smith who quotes another author called Jones.
In your essay you wish to use Jones’ idea. In-text you should acknowledge both the primary
source (Jones) and secondary source (Smith) as follows:
Jones (cited in Smith 2009) agreed that the experiment failed to confirm this hypothesis.
or
The experiment failed to confirm this hypothesis (Jones, cited in Smith 2009).
Provide the details of the secondary source in your reference list:
Smith, J 2009, Hypotheses, Western Sydney University, Penrith.
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
6
18/07/2019
WORKS BY MULTIPLE AUTHORS
IN-TEXT CITATIONS
If a work has one, two or three authors cite all names every time the reference occurs in-text. If a
work has more than three authors include only the first author followed by et al. (meaning “and
others”) e.g. (Schneider et al. 2007). If two different references shortened in this manner become
the same, include as many names as is necessary to distinguish them.
REFERENCE LIST
In the reference list all authors should be included except when there are 7 or more authors. In
these instances, give the first six authors and abbreviate the remaining authors to et al. E.g. Davis,
M, Charles, L, Curry, MJ, Shanti, P, Prasad, S, Hewings, A et al. 2003
See examples under Books, book chapters and brochures.
DIFFERENT WORKS OF THE SAME AUTHOR AND SAME YEAR
If you have references for multiple works by the same author, these are distinguished by the year
of publication. However, if you have references to works of the same author published in the same
year, differentiate the works by including ‘a’, ‘b’ or ‘c’ etc. after the year when citing in-text and in
the references list. E.g.
Reference list Jones, C 1999a, Assessing hypotheses, Western Sydney University, Penrith.
Jones, C 1999b, Forming hypotheses, Western Sydney University, Penrith.
Jones, C 2008, Developing hypotheses, Western Sydney University, Penrith.
Note: The earliest publication date should be listed first in the reference list.
In-text citation Jones (1999a) stated…
Jones (1999b) stated…
Jones (2008) stated…
Note: Different authors with the same surname can be distinguished in-text by initials
e.g. J Brown (1997) and C Brown (1997)
BOOKS, BOOK CHAPTERS AND BROCHURES
SINGLE AUTHOR
Reference list Andreasen, NC 2001, Brave new brain: conquering mental illness in the era of the
genome, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
In-text citation Andreasen (2001) stated that…
or
It is suggested that… (Andreasen 2001).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
7
18/07/2019
TWO OR THREE AUTHORS
Reference list Schneider, Z, Whitehead, D & Elliott, D 2007, Nursing and midwifery research:
methods and appraisal for evidence-based practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia,
Marrickville, NSW.
Note: Within each entry author names should be listed in the order in which they
appear on the source or as displayed on the title page.
In-text citation Schneider, Whitehead and Elliot (2007) showed that ….
or
…is demonstrated (Schneider, Whitehead & Elliot 2007).
FOUR TO SIX AUTHORS
Reference list Belenky, M, Clinchy, B, Goldberger, N & Tarule, J 1986, Women’s ways of knowing,
Basic, New York.
In-text citation Belenky et al. (1986) explains that knowing is…
or
…and therefore knowingness can be … (Belenky et al. 1986).
Note: When citing more than three authors in-text, give the name of the first author
and abbreviate the others to et al.(meaning: “and others”).
SEVEN OR MORE AUTHORS
Reference list Davis, M, Charles, L, Curry, MJ, Shanti, P, Prasad, S, Hewings, A et al. 2003,
Challenging spatial norms, Routledge, London.
Note: If a book has more than six authors, give the first six authors and abbreviate
the remaining authors to et al.(meaning: “and others”).
In-text citation Davis et al. (2003) found…..
or
This has indicated… (Davis et al. 2003).
Note: When citing more than six authors in-text, give the name of the first author
and abbreviate the others to et al.(meaning: “and others”).
NO AUTHOR (INCL. DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPAEDIA)
Reference list Guide to agricultural meteorological practices 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the
World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopaedia with no
author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these
cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored
dictionary/encyclopaedia, treat the source as an authored book.
In-text citation Guide to agricultural meteorological practices (1981) provides…
or
This can be shown by…(Guide to agricultural meteorological practices 1981).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
8
18/07/2019
CORPORATE AUTHOR / AUTHORING BODY
Reference list Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia 2004, AASB standards for 2005:
equivalents to IFRSs as at August 2004, Person Education, Sydney, Australia.
In-text citation According to the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (2004) figures
for 2004…
or
This can be seen… (Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia 2004).
Note: Abbreviate long names after providing in full on first occurrence.
EDITED BOOK
Reference list Craven, I (ed.) 2001, Australian cinema in the 1990s, Frank Cass, London.
In-text citation Craven (ed. 2001) discussed the successful…
or
The film starred actors…(ed. Craven 2001).
Note: The abbreviation for two or more editors = (eds)
CHAPTER OR ARTICLE IN BOOK
Reference list Knowles, MS 1986, ‘Independent study’, in Using learning contracts, Jossey-Bass,
San Francisco, pp. 89-96.
Note: You do not need to specify the chapter names from a book that is written in its
entirety by the same authors, however if you wish to emphasise the use of one
chapter it would be given in the above format. Please note that page numbers are not
mandatory, however providing these can assist your reader to locate the source.
In-text citation Knowles (1986) demonstrated that…
or
This independent study showed…(Knowles 1986)
CHAPTER OR ARTICLE IN AN EDITED BOOK
Reference list Ferres, K 2001, ‘Idiot box: television, urban myths and ethical scenarios’, in
I Craven (ed.), Australian cinema in the 1990s, Frank Cass, London, pp. 175-88.
In-text citation Ferres (2001) discussed the television episode…
or
The television episode…(Ferres 2001).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
9
18/07/2019
E-BOOK
Reference list Storey, KB 2004, Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation, John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, NJ, viewed 4 April 2009, NetLibrary database.
Note: If an e-book is publicly accessible via the Internet, include the URL instead of
database name. e.g. viewed 4 April 2009, <http://www…>
If the e-book is edited, include editor information as in the ‘Edited book’ example.
In-text citation Storey (2004) stated that…
or
Functional metabolism is… (Storey 2004)
JOURNAL ARTICLES, NEWSPAPER ARTICLES AND
CONFERENCE PAPERS .
The format for more than one author is the same for all sources including journal articles;
therefore refer to the examples for books in this guide.
JOURNAL ARTICLE (PRINT VERSION)
Reference list Younger, P 2004, ‘Using the internet to conduct a literature search’, Nursing
Standard, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 45-51.
In-text citation Younger (2004, p. 46) stated that the …
or
The internet can be used to conduct a literature search (Younger 2004)
Note: Further detail on including a page number in-text is provided on page 3. For
instructions on multiple authors see page 5.
JOURNAL ARTICLE (FULL-TEXT FROM ELECTRONIC DATABASE)
Reference list Jackson, D, Firtko, A & Edenborough, M 2007, ‘Personal resilience as a strategy
for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: a literature review’,
Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1-9, viewed 2 April 2009, Academic
Search Complete database, EBSCOHost, DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04412.x.
Note: DOI = Digital Object Identifier. If a DOI number is available for the journal
article it can be included in the reference.
Use the term database if it is not part of the title of the database. The database
producer or vendor (e.g.EBSCOhost) may follow the name of the database.
In-text citation Jackson, Firtko and Edenborough (2007) found that…
or
…was therefore conclusive (Jackson, Firtko & Edenborough 2007).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
10
18/07/2019
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (AVAILABLE IN PRINT)
Reference list Berkovic, N 2009, ‘Handouts may not be sent: tax office seeks quick resolution of
High Court challenge’, The Australian, 31 March, p. 5.
Note: If authorship is unknown a reference list entry is not required, however more
detail is required for the in-text citation e.g.
(Sydney Morning Herald 18 January 2009, p. 5)
When citing a newspaper title frequently it can be abbreviated e.g. SMH
In-text citation Berkovic (2009) explained that handouts….
or
It was suggested that handouts may not be sent (Berkovic 2009).
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (FROM ELECTRONIC DATABASE)
Reference list Wentworth, WC 1984, ‘Why we need a permanent base on the moon’, The Sydney
Morning Herald, 24 January, p. 11, viewed 3 April 2009, The Sydney Morning
Herald Archives database.
Note: For content that is not free and requires a log in, include the descriptor
‘database’ after the name of the database or ‘online’ after the name of the provider
e.g. Factiva database, Fairfax Media online.
Do not include a URL .
In-text citation Wentworth (1984) stated that…
or
….and this demonstrates the need for a permanent base (Wentworth 1984).
ARTICLE / NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (FROM THE INTERNET, NOT
AVAILABLE IN PRINT VERSION)
Reference list Cooper, D 2009, ‘Native ant may stop toad in its tracks’, ABC Science, 31 March,
viewed 2 April 2009, <http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles
/2009/03/31/2530686.htm?site=science&topic=latest>.
Note:
When articles are freely available and do not require a subscription include the
URL.
In-text citation Cooper (2009) stated that a ferocious ant…
or
…that meat ants may be able to help control toad numbers (Cooper 2009).
NON-ENGLISH JOURNAL ARTICLE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH
Reference list Von Der Luhe, I 1982, ‘I without guarantees: Ingeborg Bachmann’s Frankfurt
lectures on poetics’, trans. MT Kraus, New German Critique, vol. 8, no. 27, pp. 31-
56.
In-text citation Von Der Luhe (1982) concludes that both states are essential
or
…that both states are essential (Von Der Luhe 1982).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
11
18/07/2019
PROCEEDINGS OF MEETINGS AND SYMPOSIUMS, CONFERENCE PAPERS
Reference list Chang, SS, Liaw, L, & Ruppenhofer, J (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth
annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: general
session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Soc.,
Berkeley.
In-text citation Chang, Liaw and Ruppenhofer (eds 2000) stated that…
or
It has been found that…(eds Chang, Liaw & Ruppenhofer 2000)
CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (FROM ELECTRONIC DATABASE)
Reference list Bukowski, RM 2009, ‘Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell
carcinoma: update 2008’, Innovations and challenges in renal cancer:
proceedings of the third Cambridge conference, Cancer, vol. 115, no. 10, p. 2273,
viewed 19 May 2009, Academic OneFile database.
In-text citation Bukowski (2009) stated that…
or
It has been found that…(Bukowski 2009)
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
Reference list Osborn, DA, & Sinn, JKH 2006, ‘Soy formula for prevention of allergy and food
intolerance in infants’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, art. no.:
CD003741, viewed 19 May 2009, Cochrane Library database,
DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003741.pub4.
In-text citation Osborne and Sinn (2006) stated that…
or
It has been found that…(Osborne & Sinn 2006).
OTHER MATERIALS
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT (INCLUDES BILLS)
Reference list Note: Acts of Parliament do no need to be added to the reference list unless there are
details in the reference which are important to the understanding of your essay. Acts
of Parliament should be listed separately under the heading ‘Legislation’.
Corporations Act 2001 (Commonwealth of Australia) s. 3, viewed 19 May 2009,
<http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/Legislation/ActCompilation1.
nsf/framelodgmentattachments/32EF0670948528A2CA25756D007AA287>.
In-text citation Section 3 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cwlth) states that…
or
Corporations must… (Corporations Act 2001 (Cwlth), s. 3)
Note: Titles of Acts and other legislation should be cited exactly as they appear, and
punctuation should not be altered to suit the referencing style. After the first
citation, the date can be omitted from the citation.
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
12
18/07/2019
AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS
Reference list Australian Bureau of Statistics 2000, Use of the internet by householders,
Australia, cat. no. 8147.0, November, viewed 19 May 2009,
<http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8147.0/>.
For more information on different types of ABS sources see How to cite ABS sources
e.g. tables, maps. Ensure you adhere to Harvard WesternSydU style format.
In-text citation The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2000) found that…
or
…was shown in the census information (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2000).
BROCHURE
Reference list Western Sydney University 2016, Transport access guide: Penrith Campus, WSU,
Penrith, NSW.
In-text citation Buses run on a schedule…(Western Sydney University 2016)
or
The Western Sydney University (2016) Transport access guide: Penrith Campus
shows that…
GOVERNMENT REPORT
Reference list National Commission of Audit 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government,
Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
In-text citation The National Commission of Audit (1996) reported that…
or
…was shown in the report (National Commission of Audit 1996).
GOVERNMENT REPORT (ONLINE)
Reference list Department of Health and Ageing 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed
10 November 2008, <http://www.health.gov.au/internet/
main/publishing.nsf/Content/ageing>.
In-text citation The Department of Health and Ageing (2008) reported that…
or
…was shown in the report (Department of Health and Ageing 2008).
IMAGE ON THE INTERNET
Reference list An offering to the ocean in La Punta, Peru 2009, image, The Sydney Morning
Herald, 19 May, viewed 25 May 2009, <http://www.smh.com.au/snapshots/>.
In-text citation In the image (An offering to the ocean in La Punta, Peru 2009) it can be…
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
13
18/07/2019
LECTURE (UNPUBLISHED) / PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Reference list Note: When you cite information spoken about in a lecture or excerpt that has gone
unpublished it is treated as a personal communication and you do not need to
provide a reference list entry because there is no recoverable data. All details are
provided in the text. Ensure that you have the author’s permission to include the
citation.
It is advisable to use published primary sources rather than lectures as references in
your paper.
In-text citation … found that ‘neutrons are dangerous’ (H Dwyer [Western Sydney University]
2016, H0379 lecture, 10 January).
LEGAL AUTHORITIES (CASES)
Reference list Note: A legal case is only included in your references if it is important to the
understanding of your essay. Cases should be listed separately under the heading
‘Legal authorities’.
Wik Peoples v. Queensland (1996) 187 CLR 1
Jones v. Sherlock [2009] NSWSC 246
In general, square brackets are used for the year when there is no volume number.
In-text citation The case, Wik Peoples v. Queensland (1996) 187 CLR 1…
Jones v. Sherlock [2009] NSWSC 246, showed that…
On first mention in-text use the full citation. An abbreviated form or commonly
known name can be given in parentheses after the full citation. After that, use the
abbreviated form only. e.g.
…Wik Peoples v. Queensland (1996) 187 CLR 1 (the Wik case)…
…Jones v. Sherlock [2009] NSWSC 246 (Jones v. Sherlock)…
MICROFICHE / MICROFILM DOCUMENT
Reference list Mead, JV 1992, Looking at old photographs: investigating the teacher tales that
novice teachers bring with them, microfiche, National Center for Research on
Teacher Learning, East Lansing, MI, ED346082, Rep. no. NCRTL-RR-92-4.
In-text citation Mead (1992) showed that…
or
…found by investigating teacher tales (Mead 1992).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
14
18/07/2019
PATENT/ TRADEMARK (ELECTRONIC DATABASE)
Reference list Smith, PS 2002, A pump for use in windmill assembly, application no. 2008230011,
17 October, viewed 15 May 2009, <http://pericles.ipaustralia.
gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do?applicationNo=2008230011>.
Note: Complete URLs should be given for publicly accessible databases; for
databases requiring login, use database name.
For patents or trademarks not retrieved from an electronic database, replace
electronic database information with publisher information statements.
In-text citation Smith (2002) holds a patent for a windmill pump…
or
The patent for a windmill pump which… (Smith 2002).
PODCAST (FROM THE INTERNET)
Reference list Atkin, M (Reporter) 2008, ‘Bermagui forest disputed turf’, The Hack Half Hour,
13 November, podcast, viewed 31 March 2009,
<http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/hack/notes/>.
In-text citation Atkin (2008) found that…
or
It was found…(Atkin 2008).
STANDARD
Reference list Standards Australia Online 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS
1288-2006, amended 31 January 2008, viewed 19 May 2009, SAI Global database.
Note: For standards not retrieved from an electronic database, replace online
database information with publisher information statements.
In-text citation The standard published by Standards Australia Online (2006) entitled Glass in
buildings: selection and installation states that…
or
…stated that glass in buildings must be… (Standards Australia Online 2006).
STUDY GUIDE
Reference list Note: It is advisable to use published primary sources rather than tutorial/lecture
handouts as references in your paper.
Hickson, J 2009, HCR56 images and the mind: study guide, Spring session,
Western Sydney University, Penrith.
Note: When you do not know the details of the author use the details of the university
as the publisher. e.g.
Western Sydney University 2009, HCR56 images and the mind: study guide,
Spring session, Western Sydney University, Penrith.
In-text citation Hickson (2009, p. 60) found that “images…”.
or
For unknown author:
…as was found in the study (Western Sydney University 2009, p. 6).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
15
18/07/2019
THESIS / DISSERTATION
Reference list Fayadh, KH 2015, The legal regulation of assisted reproductive technology in Iraq:
lessons from the Australian approach, thesis, Penrith, Western Sydney University,
viewed 24 November 2015, Research Direct database.
In-text citation Fayadh (2015) showed that…
or
It was found…(Fayadh 2015).
TUTORIAL / LECTURE HANDOUT
Reference list Western Sydney University 2016, Madonna and child, 18 January, H0379 tutorial
handout, WSU, Penrith.
Note: It is advisable to use published primary sources rather than tutorial/lecture
handouts as references in your paper.
In-text example The Western Sydney University (2016) ‘Madonna and Child’ handout explained
that…
or
It can be seen that… (Western Sydney University 2016).
VIDEO RECORDING, TELEVISION PROGRAM OR AUDIO RECORDING
Use descriptors such as video recording, television program or audio recording.
Reference list ‘Rules of the game’ 1991, I’ll fly away, television program, New York Broadcasting
Company.
Note: Other information can be added at the end of the entry.
e.g. …New York Broadcasting Company. Directed by…
In-text citation ‘Rules of the game’ (1991) examined the …
or
The game includes the rules…..(‘Rules of the game’ 1991).
VIDEO OR AUDIO (FROM THE INTERNET)
Reference list Norton, R 2006, How to train a cat to operate a light switch, 4 November, online
video, viewed 5 April 2009, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
Vja83KLQXZs>.
In-text citation Norton (2006) showed that a cat can be trained…
or
Training a cat requires…(Norton 2006).
Western Sydney University Library Harvard WesternSydU Referencing Style Guide
16
18/07/2019
WEB PAGE / DOCUMENT ON THE INTERNET
Reference list Note: Web pages and documents on the web include the following elements:
– Author/editor/compiler
– Date of page/date of document
– Title of document (incl. version no.)/Title of page
– Name of sponsor of the source
– Date of viewing
– URL
Document on the Internet:
Este, J, Warren, C, Connor, L, Brown, M, Pollard, R & O’Connor, T 2008, Life in
the clickstream: the future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance,
viewed 27 May 2009, <http://www.alliance.org.au/documents/
foj_report_final.pdf>.
Document on the Internet, no author, no date:
Developing an argument n.d., viewed 30 March 2009, <http://web.princeton.
edu/sites/writing/Writing_Center/WCWritingResources.htm>.
Note: n.d. = no date. Always include details of authorship and publication date when
available. For websites with no author and/or date, carefully consider the reliability
and authority of the source before including it as a reference.
In-text citation Este et al. (2008) suggest that…
or
…it is necessary to develop an argument (Developing an argument n.d.).
For further assistance with referencing please contact the Library on 02 9852 5353.