[Solved] pschy case

Final Study Guide The Final is on Tuesday, 05/01 at 5pm in our normal class room Test 1 1) One reason consumers should be cautious with respect to information that is available on the World Wide Web is that A) one often cannot tell if the source is legitimate. 2) A theory is defined as an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena. – True 3) Scientists who have studied pain mechanisms have discovered that C) pain signals are sent to the central nervous system via two pathways. ) When grading the exam, the experienced teacher had few problems reading the student’s sloppy handwriting because she had asked this question before and knew in advance what the student was likely to write. This example shows most clearly the importance of A) top-down processing. 5) Even though you have been especially careful looking for spelling errors in your paper, your teacher has circled several typographical errors. Your inability to catch these errors is best explained by C) perceptual set. ) Treatments for mental illness, the ability of people to eliminate unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and initiate healthy behaviors such as exercise, and the development of positive parenting practices are all consistent with the idea that B) psychological knowledge can be used to help improve the quality of life. 7) Much of the history of psychology has been characterized by A) the belief that ideas matter greatly. 8) The mother of a little boy being treated with chemotherapy for cancer is counseled to try to create a “scapegoat” aversion for her son. This means that the mother should

A) give him candies or ice cream of unusual flavors before the treatments. 9) Even after a classically conditioned response has been extinguished, it may reappear. True 10) In 1908, Hermann Ebbinghaus wrote that “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history. ” Which statement best captures the idea that Ebbinghaus was expressing? B) Questions about human nature have existed for a long time, but only recently have the methods necessary to answer them been developed. 11) Questions about how the mind works and the nature of free will can be traced back to

D) the fourth and fifth centuries B. C. 12) In a study by Becker and Eagly in which they examined the male and female participation in “Doctors of the World”, an organization, their primary source of data was: D) by assessing archival records. 13) At the conclusion of the experiment, the researcher explains to the participants that it was necessary to provide them with inaccurate information in order to minimize bias. She goes on to say that even though their data has been collected, they can still withdraw their data if they choose to do so. The researcher is carrying out the process of

C) providing debriefing information to the participants. 14) Nature is to nurture as heredity is to C) environment. 15) The goal of the Human Genome Project is to A) identify all of the human genes. 16) The myelin sheath, which is found around some types of axons, B) is composed of glial cells. 17) A mystery writer can’t decide how the victim will meet his end. One possibility is to have him suffer botulism poisoning, but curare, a poison used by Amazon Indians is also a possibility. In either case, the victim’s death will involve the neurotransmitter

A) acetylcholine. 18) Apprehending objects and events in the environment, sensing them, identifying them, reacting to them, implies the process of: D) perception 19) Which of the following examples is most like the sensory process of transduction? A) The use of solar panels to run washing machines. 20) When people become blind, it is usually because B) the rods and cones are affected by a degenerative disease. 21) A man and woman are farm workers. The man is paid every week for his work, while the woman is paid for every two bushels of fruit she picks.

The man is under a ________ schedule of reinforcement and the woman is under a ________ schedule of reinforcement. D) fixed-interval; fixed-ratio 22) The research of Robert Rescorla strongly confirmed Pavlov’s belief that classical conditioning only requires the pairing of the CS and the UCS. False 23) The problem with relying on participants whose brains have been accidentally damaged in order to understand brain functioning is that A) researchers have no control over the location or extent of the damage. 24) You remember as a child seeing a “fly” buzzing on a flower and trying to catch it.

You also remember the pain and your hand automatically jerking away. Although you didn’t know it at the time, your reflexive withdrawal was controlled by your B) spinal cord. 25) Western psychology traces its origin to B) classical Greek philosophy. 26) Which early American psychologist taught philosophy at Harvard, studied medicine, had strong interests in literature and religion, and wrote one of the most important psychology texts ever, The Principles of Psychology, in 1890? A) William James 27) The year is 1900 and you are looking for a job in a psychology laboratory, somewhere in North America.

Assuming that each laboratory has an opening, about how many laboratories will you have from which to choose? C) 40 28) The next step in the auditory process after the stirrup vibrates against the oval window is that B) fluid in the cochlea causes the basilar membrane to move. 29) Pheromones are B) chemical substances used by some species to communicate with each other. 30) It’s a beautiful day, with just a few clouds in a deep blue sky. The fact that the clouds look closer to you than the sky is an example of C) figure and ground. 31) Which of the following is NOT one of the critical elements that defines learning?

B) Change in behavior must be observable and measurable. 32) Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which an organism learns a new association between D) two stimuli. 33) Taking his first train ride, a child is amazed at how quickly the fence posts along the tracks are whizzing by, but the farm in the distance hardly seems to move. This best illustrates A) relative motion parallax. 34) Ambiguity is an important concept in understanding perception because it shows that a single image at the sensory level can result in multiple interpretations at the perceptual and identification levels.

True 35) Pavlov believed that classical conditioning resulted from the C) mere pairing of the CS and UCS. 36) Which of the following is out of place? A) classical conditioning 37) Imagine having been a research assistant in the early laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. Which of the following is LEAST likely to have been one of your duties? D) ensuring that the results could not be replicated 38) The search for antecedent environmental conditions and the observable consequences that follow from responses is most closely associated with the ________ perspective.

C) behaviorist 39) An “observer bias” is D) an error due to personal motives and expectations. 40) In a study by Ryan et al. that is described in the textbook, researchers tested the idea that there is a relationship between physiological arousal and performance in older adults. Physiological arousal was operationalized by presenting participants with C) coffee. 41) In the context of conducting psychological research, control procedures are intended to B) hold constant variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis. 2) A child is having a tantrum. He tells his parents that he is going to hold his breath until he turns blue. Fortunately, the ________, which controls his breathing (along with the beating of his heart), won’t let him do so. B) medulla 43) In science class, a nine-year-old is learning about how thermostats work. The teacher tells her that the furnace goes on when the temperature gets too cold, then goes off when the temperature reaches a certain level. The student doesn’t know it, but this operation is similar to the concept of C) homeostasis. 4) After having suffered a stroke, a man is unable to plan his daily activities and finds it difficult to decide what to do for that day. You suspect that he has most likely suffered damage to his B) association cortex. 45) While trying to study in the library, you are distracted by two students who are arguing about which CS-UCS time interval is most effective. One student claims that a second or less is best, but the other says she is positive that longer intervals of 5 to 15 seconds work best. Finally, you go over and tell them that the D) optimal interval most depends upon the response being conditioned. 6) Covering your ears when you find yourself in a room that is too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning; wearing earplugs that reduce sound intensity before going into a room that you know will be too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning. A) escape; avoidance 47) Gerald Patterson’s coercion model suggests that children’s antisocial behavior may result from parents who D) make threats that often have no consequences but are sometimes followed by strong discipline. 48) Researchers who use self-report measures need to be aware of the limits to the usefulness of such measures.

Typically cited concerns include all of the following EXCEPT that C) respondents may be unaware of the questionnaire’s or interview’s purpose. 49) A classmate is working on her presentation on the endocrine system for class. You overhear her as she says “This gland is often called the ‘master gland’ because it has an effect on the secretions of all the other endocrine glands. ” It sounds as though she is talking about the C) pituitary. 50) A young man has begun to look and sound more physically mature, with the beginnings of a beard and a deeper voice. These changes can be attributed to the secretions of the C) pituitary. Test 2 ) The authors of this book admit that to say the least, the term consciousness is: C) ambiguous 2) The restrictive function of consciousness is most responsible for your ability to D) carry on a conversation at a noisy party. 3) When researchers studying healthy older adults looked to see whether there was a relationship between sleep efficiency and longevity, they found that ____ C) people who spent the highest percentage of bedtime asleep lived the longest. 4) All of following are symptoms of insomnia EXCEPT B) sleep during the daytime. 5) In Freud’s interpretation of dreams, manifest content is to latent content as

C) the acceptable version is to the unacceptable version. 6) Which of the following statements most closely represents J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley’s activation-synthesis model of dreaming? B) Dreams result from neural signals in the brain stem that stimulate areas of the 7) Suppose you wanted to take control of your dreams and direct them in a way that would satisfy your own needs. According to some dream researchers, you should C) learn techniques for lucid dreaming. 8) The EEG pattern during REM sleep resembles that of a person who is awake. Answer: TRUE 9) Research on hypnosis has generally supported the conclusion that

C) hypnosis is not just a kind of “placebo response. ” 10) Hallucinations can result from all of the following EXCEPT C) perceptual distortions of real stimuli. 11) An elementary school student is putting together facts for a brochure on alcohol use. The student should re-check his facts, however, because it is NOT true that C) the body can break down alcohol at a very fast rate. . 12) A “think-aloud” protocol could be used to document the mental strategies and representations of knowledge that participants employ while engaged in a task. Answer: TRUE 13) Memory is defined as

D) the capacity to store and retrieve information 14) While you are jogging in the park, the scene of a family enjoying a picnic catches your eye. After you turn away, the image of the family will B) last for about one-half second. 15) Compared to eidetic imagery, iconic memory C) lasts for much shorter periods of time 16) The textbook describes a famous research participant, S. F. , who was able to memorize 84 digits, though his memory for letters was still average. One lesson to be learned from this study is that D) you, too, can structure information according to its personal meaning to you. 7) It is best to characterize working memory as a C) conduit for information coming from and going to long-term memory. 18) In trying to explain rugby to a friend, you find yourself using terminology from American football, with which you are most familiar. Bartlett called this reconstructive process A) assimilating. 19) In a study that is described in the textbook, college students were asked to either perform or imagine performing actions. On a future memory test, researchers found that the students A) sometimes believed they had performed actions that they had only imagined. 20) Alzheimer’s disease has

B) a mild onset with steady deterioration. 21) Lashley’s inability to determine where the memory trace is located may be due to the fact that B) even simple situations involve a variety of types of memory. 22Your grandfather seems particularly good at recalling many of the colors and smells associated with his childhood experiences. The part of the brain responsible for these memories is the C) cerebral cortex. 23) In an experiment by Endel Tulving and Donald Thomson that is described in the textbook, participants were given a list of word pairs to learn and told they only had to remember the second word of each pair.

Later they were asked to either recognize whether the second word appeared on a list they generated, or to recall the second word given the first word of the pair. It was found that the participants were B) better at recalling the second words after being provided with the first words. 24) Memory theorists have suggested that primacy and recency effects are best explained in terms of B) distinctiveness. 25) One difficulty with the levels-of-processing theory is that C) there is uncertainty as to what constitutes “deep” or “shallow” rehearsal. 6) Although she has never been snowboarding, a girl feels she will not enjoy the sport because she does not like cross-country skiing. She is using the ________ heuristic. C) representativeness 27) Studies of decision making demonstrate that . D) the way in which a question is phrased can influence one’s decision. 28) In the context of decision making, a “frame” is A) a particular description of a choice. 29) Two students are taking a physics test. The optimistic student expects to get an A, while the pessimistic student would be happy with a C. When the test results are determined, it happens that they both received B’s.

It is most likely that B) the pessimistic student will be happy with her grade. 31) If members of the government are suspected of wasteful spending and know about the effects of framing choices, in order to minimize public criticism, they will likely argue that A) there was a 30% chance that we did not know that we were engaged in wasteful spending. 32) Despite the pioneering efforts of F. C. Donders’s, researchers today rarely use reaction time as a way of testing how some cognitive process is carried out. Answer: FALSE 33) Controlled processes require attention; it is often difficult to carry out more than one controlled process at a time.

Answer: TRUE 34) Which statement best characterizes the results of research on the claim of linguistic relativity? A) Language may, in some circumstances, have an impact on thought. 35) A study that reviewed literature on content of lies reported that as compared to people who tell the truth A) Liars provide fewer details in their accounts 36) Social problems such as homelessness, poverty, lack of education, and violence are best described as D) ill-defined. 37) A(n) ________ is a step-by-step procedure that always provides the right answer for a particular type of problem.

C) algorithm 38) Suppose you are working on the Wason selection task. You are shown four cards and are testing a rule. Research suggests that you will do much better on this task if you C) can apply your real-world knowledge. 39) You are sitting in your time machine, trying to decide what date and location to set. You want to go back to the earliest time and place that assessment was widely used. You should set the dial to send you back ________ years to the country of ________. D) 4,000; China 40) A child is playing a game called “Who Am I. His clues read, “I am a half-cousin to Charles Darwin, in 1869 I wrote the highly influential book Hereditary Genius, and I attempted to apply evolutionary theory to the study of human abilities. ” The answer is clearly C) Sir Francis Galton. 41) On the topic of genius, Sir Francis Galton took the stand that D) genius is inherited. 42) If you are using the test-retest measurement of reliability, a perfectly reliable test will yield A) a correlation coefficient of +1. 00. 43) In the language of assessment, a test that measures what an assessor intends it to measure is B) valid. 44) A youngster is taking a test in a large room.

The person giving the test is very careful that everyone takes the test under the same conditions. Everyone hears exactly the same instructions, and is given the same amount of time. It appears as though the test that the youngster is taking is B) standardized. 45) Which of the following most likely constitutes a violation of standardization when administering a test? B) Due to excessive noise, some students are allowed to take more time to finish the test. 46) Soon after their development, intelligence tests took on great importance in the United States partly because C) universal education led to a flood of students who had to be assessed. 7) A boy who is six years old has just tested at a mental age of five. What would his IQ be using Terman’s formula for deriving this number? A) 83 48) On IQ tests today, decisions concerning which scores would be labeled “very superior” or “bright normal,” are made on the basis of C) cutoff points for scores. 49) Using the latest version of the Stanford-Binet test, if someone were to receive an IQ score of 109 today, it would mean that person B) had a “normal” IQ. 50) Charles Spearman’s belief that there is a factor of general intelligence underlying all intelligent performance, was based on his finding that

A) the performance of individuals on a variety of intelligence tests was highly correlated. Test 3 1a. What are two neurotransmitters associated with depression? Answer- Serotonin and Norepinephrine 2. a What are the 3 sub-types of pathological narcissism? Regression, Narcissistic choice of object, Narcissistic Personality Disorder 3a. What are involuntary, seemingly uncontrollable thoughts, images, or impulses that occur over and over again in an individual’s mind suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder? Answer: Obsessions 4a. Panic Disorder was first recognized by __American Psychiatric__________________ association. a. Bipolar Disorder 1 and 2 are most commonly developed and diagnosed in which age group? b. 13 – 25 “Multiple Personality Disorder” 1) A student is using flashcards to help prepare for a test. On one side of each card she lists a stage in life span development and on the other side she lists the appropriate age period of the stage. Unfortunately, she has written one incorrectly. Which of the following should she change? B) early childhood-about 6- to 11-years-old 2) A boy can give you directions on how to get to the neighborhood store and if you ask him he can also tell you how to get back.

To be able to do this reflects an understanding of C) reversibility. 3) On which of the following types of memory tests would elderly individuals be most likely to show the greatest performance deficits? B) acquiring new information 4) Dan Slobin has defined a set of operating principles that together constitute children’s language-making capacity. These principles are D) thought to be encoded as part of the human biological inheritance. 5) According to John Bowlby, an influential theorist on human attachment, infants and adults will form attachments . B) due to biological predispositions. ) Suppose you are watching a monkey in Harry Harlow’s research on attachment. When presented with a fear stimulus, such as a toy that makes loud noises, you should expect the monkey to D) run to the cloth mother. 7) The “cross-fostering” research of Stephen Suomi demonstrated that putting emotionally vulnerable infant monkeys in the care of loving foster-care mothers B) caused the monkeys to become bold and outgoing. 8) A happily married modern couple expects to be parents soon. They might be interested to learn that researchers have found that the birth of children

B) may be a threat to the overall happiness of a marriage. 9) A few of your friends are discussing the rates of divorce, but there is some controversy about the actual frequency of divorce. Confident in your statistics, you can accurately inform them that about ________ of all marriages now end in divorce. C) two-thirds 10) According to the selective social interaction theory, as people age they A) become more selective in choosing social partners. 11) Some personality theorists rely on the concept of personality types. When developing these types, a basic rule is that C) the categories do not overlap. 2) When Gordon Allport said, “The same fire that melts the butter hardens the egg,” he was referring to the idea that A) the same stimuli can have different effects on different people. 13) A friend considers himself to be a very honest person. According to the psychological research on the consistency of behavior across situations, you should expect that your friend B) may be honest in some, but not all situations. 14) A little boy has started to imitate everything that his father does and be like him as much as he can. Within the context of Freud’s theory, we can infer that the boy B) has resolved the Oedipus complex. 5) When a boy thinks about stealing a candy bar from the store because he is hungry, he is prevented from doing so because of the possible consequences of getting caught and he decides to go home and eat instead. In Freud’s view, the boy’s ________ operating under the ________ led to his decision to postpone eating until he reached home. B) ego; reality principle 16) Shopping at a flea market, you come across a book whose cover is ripped off. Skimming through it, you come across chapters entitled “Collective Unconscious,” “Archetypes,” and “Analytic Psychology. ” You can safely guess that the book was either written by, or is about

B) Carl Jung. 17) The cognitive social-learning theory of Albert Bandura places the LEAST amount of emphasis on B) genetic predispositions to behave. 18) Although a young woman is certain that she will succeed as an actress, she does not believe that her parents will support this career choice. In Bandura’s view, the potential influence of her parents on her expectations for success or failure in acting is an example of . B) an outcome-based expectation. Answer: B 19) A woman believes that a person’s behavior should be based on the needs of the community at large and should be acceptable by the community at large.

According to Hazel Markus and Shinobu Kitayama, you should be safe in predicting that the woman comes from a(n) ________ culture which supports ________ construals of self. D) collectivist; interdependent 20) A researcher is looking for a test that has an extensive archival record of more than 50 years, and one that has standardized items which he can analyze to test hypotheses about self-efficacy, a psychological construct that did not exist when the test was first developed. The researcher should be encouraged to use the D) MMPI. 1) A man describes himself as someone who “shoots himself in the foot” and inevitably hinders his own goal-seeking behavior, but he is concerned that he interferes with the goals of other members of his family as well. This man’s behavior may be validly labeled abnormal according to the C) maladaptiveness criterion of abnormality. 22) A therapist believes that his client’s depression is caused by her inability to express her anger and bottling up feelings. With respect to the goal of classification of psychological disorders, the therapist’s observations are most beneficial in A) understanding of etiology. 3) In an article on psychopathology that is assigned by your teacher, the author argues that genetic predispositions make a person vulnerable to a psychological disorder, but psychological stress is necessary for the disorder to develop fully. This perspective is best characterized as C) interactionist. 24) Although she knows it doesn’t make sense and she dreads having to do so, a woman must count to a million before she gets out of bed. This takes her most of the day. From this description, it would appear that the woman has D) obsessive-compulsive disorder. 25) The two major types of mood disorders are technically known as

C) major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. 26) A behavioral therapist is explaining the cause of prolonged depression in a client. He is most likely to suggest that his client’s state of sadness might be lingering because of A) the increased attention and sympathy he receives from others. 27) Research supports the predictions of explanatory style theory that individuals who attribute failure to ________ causes are vulnerable to depression. D) internal, stable, and global 29) They know the young man well at the police station. Although only in his twenties, he has been arrested many times for a variety of unlawful behaviors.

He usually denies any involvement, but eventually says that his victims are losers and that their loss is his gain. He would most likely be classified with ________ disorder. C) antisocial personality 30) Popularly known as “split personality” and sometimes called “multiple personality disorder,” ________ is a disorder in which two or more distinct personalities exist within the same individual. D) dissociative identity disorder 31) The major types of schizophrenic disorders include all of the following EXCEPT C) organized. 32) The primary tasks or general goals of the therapeutic process include all of the following EXCEPT that of

B) comparing the cost effectiveness of the various treatment possibilities. 33) When you ask your classmate what type of therapist came to her class as a guest lecturer, she says she doesn’t know but remembers that when she wrote her name on the blackboard, the letters “Psy. D. ” were written next to her name. You conclude the speaker was most likely a(n) C) clinical or counseling psychologist. 34) A psychoanalyst has noticed that whenever a patient begins talking about his father, he has very little to say or he will quickly change the topic.

When his father finally is discussed, the patient claims that his father is irrelevant. The therapist is most likely to interpret the patient’s behavior as an instance of B) resistance. 35) Melanie Klein’s view that the building blocks of how we experience the world emerge from our interactions with significant people in our lives has become central to A) object relations theory. 36) Psychodynamic therapists have claimed that behaviorists treat outer, target behaviors rather than the true, inner causes of disorders.

Research, however, has not shown that ________ takes place as a result, as psychodynamic therapists would predict. B) symptom substitution 37) In a study on behavioral treatment that is described in the textbook, some cocaine and opioid-dependent participants received reinforcement contingent on being drug free by way of getting vouchers The others were given the opportunity to win prizes on being drug free. Researchers assessed the efficacy of each treatment program, by measuring the average number of weeks participants in each group were abstinent. Results revealed that

D) both contingency management treatments increased the likelihood that participants would abstain from drugs. 38) In order to increase the likelihood that treatment gains during therapy will carry over to the client’s real-life setting, therapists will C) teach behaviors that are likely to be reinforced naturally in a client’s environment. 39) A clinical version of existential psychology assumes that, given the bewildering number of realities faced by people today, ________ syndromes reflect a retreat from these realities; and ________ syndromes reflect exploitation of these realities.

D) depressive and obsessive; sociopathic and narcissistic 40) According to Virginia Satir, a developer of family therapy approaches, B) the family therapist may play many roles, including influence agent, mediator, and referee. 41) Antidepressants work by ________ the activity of ________. C) increasing; norepinephrine and serotonin 42) If one were to use a computer analogy to point out the main distinction between psychological and biomedical approaches to treatment, it would be B) biomedical treatments focus on changing the hardware, whereas psychological treatments focus on changing the software.

Chapter 11 Motivation 1) Psychologists using the concept of motivation have suggested that B) actions may be internally or externally motivated. 6) In the context of motivation, homeostasis refers to A) a state of equilibrium in internal bodily conditions. 9) A manager doesn’t particularly like his job but he works hard anyway because he is well-paid. The money he receives as a reward for his behavior is called a(n) C) incentive. Chapter 12 Emotion, Stress, and Health 1) Moods differ from emotions in that moods C) may last several days. 3) According to Charles Darwin, emotions are

A) designed to deal with recurring situations in the world. 23) “Does a particular emotional experience produce a distinct pattern of activity in the autonomic nervous system? ” Cross-cultural researchers would argue that B) the answer is yes. Chapter 16 Social Cognition and Relationships 4) Which of the following statements involves an attribution? A) They can’t afford a washing machine because he spends so much on that fancy car of 7) A panhandler approaches you and your friend for some money. When your friend gives him a dollar, you attribute your friend’s behavior to her inherently generous spirit.

Fritz Heider would say that you made a(n) ________ attribution. C) dispositional 18) Consider the hypothesis that people who live in some cultures may be more susceptible to the fundamental attribution error than people who live in other cultures. If this hypothesis is true, we should expect that people who live in B) cultures that embody interdependent construals of self will be less likely to commit this error. 31) Psychologists identify three types of information that give rise to attitudes. Which of the following has NOT been suggested as a type of information? A) vicarious

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