[Solved] process costing

Process costing is a form of operations costing which is used where standardized homogeneous goods are produced. This costing method is used in industries like chemicals, textiles, steel, rubber, sugar, shoes, petrol etc. Process costing is also used in the assembly type of industries also. It is assumed in process costing that the average cost presents the cost per unit. Cost of production during a particular period is divided by the number of units produced during that period to arrive at the cost per unit.

MEANING OF PROCESS COSTING: Process costing is a method of costing under which all costs are accumulated for each stage of production or process, and the 2 cost per unit of product is ascertained at each stage of production by dividing the cost of each process by the normal output of that process. Definition: CIMA London defines process costing as “that form of operation costing which applies where standardize goods are produced” (a)

The production is continuous (b) The product is homogeneous (c) The process is standardized d) Output of one process become raw material of another process (e) The output of the last process is transferred to finished stock (f) Costs are collected process-wise (g) Both direct and indirect costs are accumulated in each process (h) If there is a stock of semi-finished goods, it is expressed in terms of equalent units (i) The total cost of each process is divided by the normal output of that process to find out cost per unit of that process. Advantages of process costing: 1. Costs are be computed periodically at the end of a particular period 2.

It is simple and involves less clerical work that job costing 3. It is easy to allocate the expenses to processes in order to have accurate costs. 4. Use of standard costing systems in very effective in process costing situations. 5. Process costing helps in preparation of tender, quotations 6. Since cost data is available for each process, operation and department, good managerial control is possible. Limitations: 1. Cost obtained at each process is only historical cost and are not very useful for effective control. 2.

Process costing is based on average cost method, which is not that suitable for performance analysis, evaluation and managerial control. 3. Work-in-progress is generally done on estimated basis which leads to inaccuracy in total cost calculations. 4. The computation of average cost is more difficult in those cases where more than one type of products is manufactured and a division of the cost element is necessary. 5. Where different products arise in the same process and common costs are prorated to various costs units.

Such individual products costs may be taken as only approximation and hence not reliable. COSTING PROCEDURE For each process an individual process account is prepared. Each process of production is treated as a distinct cost centre. Items on the Debit side of Process A/c. Each process account is debited with – a) Cost of materials used in that process. b) Cost of labour incurred in that process. c) Direct expenses incurred in that process. d) Overheads charged to that process on some pre determined. e) Cost of ratification of normal defectives. ) Cost of abnormal gain (if any arises in that process) Items on the Credit side: Each process account is credited with a) Scrap value of Normal Loss (if any) occurs in that process. b) Cost of Abnormal Loss (if any occurs in that process) Cost of Process: The cost of the output of the process (Total Cost less Sales value of scrap) is transferred to the next process. The cost of each process is thus made up to cost brought forward from the previous process and net cost of material, labour and overhead added in that process after reducing the sales value of scrap.

The net cost of the finished process is transferred to the finished goods account. The net cost is divided by the number of units produced to determine the average cost per unit in that process. Process Losses: In many process, some loss is inevitable. Certain production techniques are of such a nature that some loss is inherent to the production. Wastages of material, evaporation of material is un avoidable in some process. But sometimes the Losses are also occurring due to negligence of Labourer, poor quality raw material, poor technology etc.

These are normally called as avoidable losses. Basically process losses are classified into two categories (a) Normal Loss (b) Abnormal Loss 1. Normal Loss: Normal loss is an unavoidable loss which occurs due to the inherent nature of the materials and production process under normal conditions. It is normally estimated on the basis of past experience of the industry. It may be in the form of normal wastage, normal scrap, normal spoilage, and normal defectiveness. It may occur at any time of the process.

No of units of normal loss: Input x Expected percentage of Normal Loss. The cost of normal loss is a process. If the normal loss units can be sold as a crap then the sale value is credited with process account. If some rectification is required before the sale of the normal loss, then debit that cost in the process account. After adjusting the normal loss the cost per unit is calculates with the help of the following formula: Cost of good unit: Total cost increased – Sale Value of Scrap Input – Normal Loss units 2. Abnormal Loss:

Any loss caused by unexpected abnormal conditions such as plant breakdown, substandard material, carelessness, accident etc. such losses are in excess of pre-determined normal losses. This loss is basically avoidable. Thus abnormal losses arrive when actual losses are more than expected losses. The units of abnormal losses in calculated as under: Abnormal Losses = Actual Loss – Normal Loss The value of abnormal loss is done with the help of following formula: Value of Abnormal Loss: Total Cost increase – Scrap Value of normal Loss x Units of abnormal loss Input units – Normal Loss Units

Abnormal Process loss should not be allowed to affect the cost of production as it is caused by abnormal (or) unexpected conditions. Such loss representing the cost of materials, labour and overhead charges called abnormal loss account INTER PROCESS PROFITS: Normally the output of one process is transferred to another process at cost but sometimes at a price showing a profit to the transfer process. The transfer price may be made at a price corresponding to current wholesale market price or at cost plus an agreed percentage.

The advantage of the method is to find out 11whether the particular process is making profit (or) loss. This will help the management whether to process the product or to buy the product from the market. If the transfer price is higher than the cost price then the process account will show a profit. The complexity brought into the accounting arises from the fact that the inter process profits introduced remain a part of the prices of process stocks, finished stocks and work-in-progress. The balance cannot show the stock with profit.

To avoid the complication a provision must be created to reduce the stock at actual cost prices. This problem arises only in respect of stock on hand at the end of the period because goods sold must have realized the internal profits. The unrealized profit in the closing stock is eliminated by creating a stock reserve. The amount of stock reserve is calculated by the following formula. Stock Reserve = Transfer Value of stock x Profit included in transfer price Transfer Price CONCLUSION: Some companies have homogeneous or very similar products that are not made to order and are produced in large volumes.

They continually process their product, moving it from one function to the next until it is completed. In these companies, the manufacturing costs incurred are allocated to the proper functions or departments within the factory process rather than to specific products. Examples of products that companies produce continuously are cereal, bread, candy, steel, automotive parts, chips, and computers. Companies that refine oil or bottle drinks and companies that provide services such as mail sorting and catalog order are also examples of continuous, homogeneous processing.


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