CHAPTER 1 DEFINITIONS AND BACKGROUND Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener ( or reader) and it has more to do with the analysis of what people mean by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. Pragmatic is the study of the speaker meaning. It is involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context influences what is said. It is study of how speakers organize what they want to say in accordance with who they’re talking to, where, when and under what circumstances.
Pragmatics is the study of contextual meaning. It also explores how listeners can make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning. Pragmatics is the study of how more gets communicated than is said. Closeness also implies shared experience on the assumption of how close or distant the listener is, speakers determine how much needs to be said. Pragmatics is the study of the expressions of relative distance. CHAPTER 2 DEIXIS AND DISTANCE Diexis means “pointing” via language (deictic expression). For example when you notice a strange object and ask, “What’s that? you are using deictic expression (“that”) to indicate something in the immediate context. Diexis divided into three expressions: 1. Person deixis (me, you) can be used to indicate people. Social deixis, person deixis distinction between forms used for a familiar versus non familiar addressee in some languages or T/V distinction, ‘tu’ (familiar) and ‘vous’ (unfamiliar), for example: Would his higness like some coffee? There is also an exclusive “we” (speaker plus other(s), excluding addressee) and inclusive “we” (speaker and addressee included), for example: We clean up after ourselves around here. 2.
Spatial deixis ( here , there) can be used to indicate location, for example the verb motion ‘come’ and ‘go’, retain a deictic sense when they are used to mark movement toward the speaker (come to bed) or away from the speaker (go to bed! ). Deictic projection, where the speaker is not in the real location, but the future, for example: I’m not here now; I’ll come later. 3. Temporal deixis (now, then) can be used to indicate time, for example: November 22nd, 1963? I was in Scotland then; Dinner at 8:30 on Saturday? Okay, I’ll see you then. Deixis and grammar can be distinct in direct and indirect (or reported) speech, for example: a.
Are you planning to be here this evening? b. I asked her if she was planning to be there that evening. Sentence b deictically marked as relative to circumstances of asking. CHAPTER 3 REFERENCE AND INFERENCE Reference is an act in which a speaker, or a writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader to identify something. Referring expressions can be proper noun (Shakespeare, Cathy Revuelto, Hawaii), definite noun phrases (the author, the singer, the island), or indefinite (a man, a woman, a beautiful place), and pronouns (he, she, it, them) full sentence (remember the old foreign guy with the funny hat? . Inference is the listener’s task to infer correctly which entity the speaker intends to identify by using particular referring expression (the blue thing, that icky stuff). Attributive use is meaning whoever/whatever fits the description, for example: there’s a man waiting for you, while in referential use the meaning and the description of the person is only exist in the speakers mind, for example: He wants to marry a woman with lots of money.
The role of co-text is to help the listeners to understand the referring expression, for example: Brazil wins World Cup. Brazil is the referring expression, while the rest of the sentence is the co-text. Anaphoric reference consist of anaphor, cathapor, zero anaphor, and ellipsis. CHAPTER 4 PRESUPPOSITION AND ENTAILMENT Presupposition is something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. An entailment is something that logically follows from what is asserted in the utterance. Types of presupposition: 1.
Potential presuppositions: can only become actual presuppositions in context with the speaker. 2. Existential presuppositions: not only assumed to be present in possessive construction, but in any definite noun phrase. 3. Factive presuppositions: the presupposed information following a verb (know) can be treated as fact 4. Lexical presuppositions: the use of one form with its asserted meaning is conventionally interpreted with the presupposition that another meaning is understood. (managed, tried) 5.
Structural presuppositions: certain sentence structures have been analyzed as conventionally and regularly presupposing that part of the structure is already assumed to be true. (When did he leave? => he left) 6. Non factive presuppositions: one that is assumed not to be true (dream, imagine, pretend) 7. Counter factual presuppositions: what is presupposed is not only true but is the opposite of what is true. Background entailment (only some of which are presented in the text) and foreground entailment ( order entailment). CHAPTER 5
COOPERATION AND IMPLICATURE The cooperative principle, the maxims: Quantity ( make your contribution as informative as is required) Quality ( try to make your contribution one that is true, do not say what you believe to be false, and do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence) Relation ( be relevant) Manner ( be perspicuous, avoid obscurity of expression, avoid ambiguity, be brief, be orderly) Hedges, cautious notes, can also be used to show that the speaker is conscious of the quantity of maxim ( as you probably know, I am terrified of bugs)