The topic I chose to research was Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Polycystic is a health problem that can affect a women’s menstrual cycle, childbearing, hormones, and other bodily functions. Women with this disorder typically have higher levels of androgens in their bodies. [ (DePaolo, 2007) ] In this paper I will first do an overview of the female reproductive system, briefly discus the menstrual and ovarian cycle and finally discuss Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Overview of Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system is a very complex system as compared to the male reproductive system.
This system is solely responsible for menstrual flow, sexual intercourse, and childbirth. What makes the female reproductive anatomy different is that its major parts are internal and that it develops from the paramesonephric duct due to the absence of testosterone and millerianmesonephric duct that degenerates while the labria minora and labioscratal folds from the labria majora. The paramesonephric duct develops into the uterine tubes uterus and vagina with millerianmesonephric duct. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The primary sex organs for the female is the ovaries which are also know as female gonads.
The ovaries are responsible for producing egg cells and sex hormones. With their almond-shape they nestle into the ovarian fossa which is a depression in the dorsal pelvic wall. The ovaries are divided into an outer cortex where germ cells develop and central medulla which is occupied by major arteries and veins. Within the ovaries each egg develops its own fluid-filled bubble like follicle and is released by ovulation. Several connective tissue ligaments hold the ovaries in place. The ovarian ligament and its lateral pole are attached to pelvic wall by the suspensory ligament.
The anterior portion of the ovary is anchored by a portioned fold called the mesorarium which extend to a sheet of peritoneum the broad ligament which flanks the uterus and encloses the uterine tube in its superior margin; the ovaries receive blood from the ovarian branch of the uterine artery and the ovarian artery. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The genital of the female body is composed of two parts both internal and external. The internal genitalia consist of the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina whereas the external genitalia consist of the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora.
The uterine tubes are a canal from the ovary to the uterus. The distal end flares into a trumpet shaped infundibulum with feathery projections’ called fimbrine. The middle part of the tube is called ampulla while the distal end near the uterus is called the isthmus. The walls of the uterine tubes are smooth muscles with the mucosa that is extremely folded and convoluted the epithelium of the ciliated cells. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The Uterus is the thick muscular chamber that opens into the roof of the vagina and tits forward over the urinary bladder.
The sole purpose of the uterus is to harbor the fetus provide a source of nutrition and expel the fetus at the end of pregnancy. It is a pear-shaped with a broad superior curvature fundus a midportion called the body and the cylindered inferior called the cervix. The lumen of the uterus is roughly triangular the two corners opening into the uterine tubes. The uterine walls consist of an external serosa clled the perimetrum the middle consist of the myometrium and the inner mucosa called the endometrum.
The myometrium constitutes most of the wall which is composed of the bundles of smooth muscle that sweep downward from the fundus and spiral around the body of the uterus. The function of the myometrium is to produce the labor contractions that help to expel the fetus. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The endometrim is the mucosa and the simple columnar epithelium compound tubular glands and a stroma populated by leukocytes macrophages and other cells. For a menstrual period the stratum functionalis is shed here while the stratum basalis is left behind.
The stratum basalis regenerates a new functionalis for a new cycle. The sole purpose of the vagina is the discharge of menstrual fluid, sexual intercourse and childbirth. It tilts dorsally between the urethra and rectum. The vagina does not exist of any glands but is moistened by transudation of serous fluid through the vaginal wall and from mucus from glands in the cervical canal. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The external genitalia is also known as the vulva it consist of the mons pubis labia majora and minora, clitoris, vaginal orifice, accessory glands, and erectile tissues.
The mons pubis is adipose tissue overlying the pubic symphysis the labia majora is just a pair of thick folds if adipose tissue inferior to the mons pubis this is where pubic hair grows. Medial to that is the labia minora. The clitoris is the s sensory center for erotic stimulation. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Oogenesis is the term used to describe egg production. It is accompanied by the cyclic changes in hormones secretion and in the histological structure of the ovaries and uterus which changes month to month. The ovaries have a very close relationship to the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
The Ovarian Cycle has three phase Follicular phase, Ovulation, and Luteal phase. The follicular phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 14 of the ovarian cycle the parental phase is follicular development preceding the formation of an antrum resume in adolescence. In the antral phase the antrum develop under the influence of the pituitary gonnadotropins. One secondary follicle outpaces the others in its development and becomes the dominate follicle. Ovulation occurs at the day 14 which is the rupture of mature follicle and release of oocyte.
The luteal phase is after the releasing the oocyte it collapse and develops corpus luteum secretes progesterone but in the absence of pregnancy it involutes from day 22 to 26 and is inactive car after day 26. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] The menstrual cycle consist of a proliferative, secretory, premenstrual and menstrual phases The proliferative phase starts with the regenerate of the stratum functionalsi by mitosis under the influence of estrogen from the ovaries next is the secretory phase which is the thinking of the endometrium under the influence of progesterone from the corpus luteum.
Then the premenstrual phase which is triggered by involution of the corpus luteum because of a lack of progesterone which result in the sloughing off of the stratum functionalis and finally the menstrual phase which begins after sloughing of the functional resulting in vaginal discharge of menstrual fluid. [ (Saladin, 2007) ] Polycystic Ovarian Disease Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is very common in young women of reproductive age . It occurs in about one in ten women and can occur in female as early the age 11.
The cause of this disorder is unknown but genetic and insulin have been linked to PCOS. [ (DePaolo, 2007) ] It occurs when the ovaries produce higher than normal amounts of androgens which interfere with the occyte development and release, some of the oocyte develop into cysts which are sacs filled with liquid. When the occyte is not released during ovulation the cysts builds up in the ovaries and become enlarged. Young women with PCOS often have irregular or missed cycles. This disorder is not curable but it is treatable. Young women with this disorder are more likely to be nfertile, have excessive hair growth (hirsutism) acne obese or overweight diabetes and abnormal bleeding from the uterus and cancer. [ (Alpert, 2007) ] The main indicate of PCOS is an irregular or missed period. Your gynecologist or endocrinologist will ask you question about your past health along with a physical examination to check your weight and but physical and vital signs. If sexually active you will have a gynecologic examination to rule out any other symptoms. A doctor may also perform blood test to diagnose this disorder or other conditions.
Doctors can use an ultrasound to check the condition of the ovaries to determine if you have cysts or other abnormalities of the ovaries. [ (Alpert, 2007) ] If the young woman is overweight then the doctor would recommend she lose weight. Doctors depending on the need and wants of the young women will prescribe medications. Doctor may give the young women birth control or hormone pill to regulate her menstrual and reduce the amounts of androgen in the body. Also may antiandrogens be prescribe to clear up acne and reduce hair growth problems.
Metformin whish is also used to treat diabetic can lower the insulin levels in the body and promote a 10% weight lose and a 30% chance of pregnancy. [ (Newson, 2008) ] Conclusion Polycystic Ovary Syndrome can affect any women of childbearing age through it is not curable it is very treatable The signs and symptoms are not always the same with every women and there is no proof that this disorder is inherited. Many women whom have this disorder go on and have healthy babies with the proper care and treatment from their doctors. The only way to know for sure if you have this disorder is to see your local doctor to get tested and treated.