There is little or no regard given to their ability to work well with others or function in a state of empowerment. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen has a nontraditional creative approach to the management of ability. Individuals were selected based on their interpersonal skills and abilities rather than technical skills. Aberdeen philosophy is that the former is more difficult to train individuals on than the latter. (Claws, James G. , 2007) Organizational Commitment An employee’s psychological attachment to the organization for which they work is known as organizational commitment. Organizational commitment – Wisped, the free encyclopedia, 2009) The required text for this course states that there are two distinct types of organizational commitment. There are actually three perspectives that characterize an employee’s commitment to their employing organization. An employee has an Affective Commitment when they demonstrate a positive attachment to an organization, believes in and feels good about the organization and what it stands for, and desires to act in the best interest of the organization.
Continuance Commitment exists when an employee perceives an economic or social cost associated with leaving an organization and therefore remain because they feel they have to do so. Normative Commitment exists when an employee remains with an organization out of a sense of obligation. The employee feels that it is the right thing to do. This could be due to the organization’s invested resources or colonization processes. (Organizational commitment – Wisped, the free encyclopedia, 2009) The employees at Green River remained with the organization because of a continuance commitment.
Simplified 00 ascriptions Walt minimal advancement opportunities Ana an emphases on compensation were solidified by union contracts. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen employees have an affective commitment to the organization. The employee selection process ensured the right individuals were chosen to promote an affective commitment. The team management concept where employees are treated fairly empowered employees and promoted a highly productive disciplined environment. (Claws, James G. , 2007) Job Satisfaction When an employee has a “sense of inner fulfillment and pride achieved when performing a particular Job,” Job satisfaction exists.
Generally, an employee’s sense of accomplishment is linked directly to their level of productivity. Job satisfaction exists when an employee enjoys doing their Job well and feels they are adequately rewarded for their efforts. (Answers Corporation, 2009) Job satisfaction for Green River employees is strictly extrinsic. Their satisfaction is consequential exclusively from their compensation package and not their sense of fulfillment. (Van Cleave) Aberdeen structure, design and culture empowered employees, which promoted a highly productive and disciplined environment.
Continual training, freely shared information, rewards and advancement opportunities resulted in minimal employee turnover and maximum employee morale. Consequently, Job satisfaction at Aberdeen is intrinsic. Organizational Ethics Organizations establish organizational ethics to determine acceptable behavior by its members. This includes moral values, beliefs and rules governing its members’ behavior both internally and externally. (George & Jones, 2008) Since Green River and Aberdeen are both subsidiaries of FMC Corporation, they are both “ethically grounded in the parent corporation. Van Cleave) The FMC commitment to ethics expects the highest ethical standards from all directors and/or employees regardless of position or location. (FMC Corporation, 2008) At Green River, management makes facility specific organizational ethical decisions. At Aberdeen, all employees are included in the decision making process. (Van Cleave) Job Design and Goal-setting Identifying what “techniques, equipment and procedures” to employ to perform specific tasks associated with a particular Job is known as Job design. George & Jones, 2008) An employee’s motivation, Job attestation, performance, absenteeism, productivity and commitment to an organization can all be influenced by Job design. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Therefore, proper Job design is essential to effective and efficient performance and production. Scientific Management One of the earliest forms of Job design is scientific management. Scientific management employed time and motion studies to identify the most efficient method to perform specific tasks and how much time each task required to perform and plan accordingly.
Employees were given training and specific instructions and paid to perform the tasks according to specifications. (Section 1 : Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Specialization An advancement of scientific management was Job specialization. Job specialization divided each Job into simplified tasks. Each task is to be performed in a repetitive manner thereby recycling ten level AT SKI requirements, tile spent on training as well as ten cost AT staffing. However, Job specialization does not motivate employees and results in high absenteeism and employee turnover.
Job specialization also does not provide flexibility to adapt to rapidly changing external and internal environments. (Section 1 : Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Rotation An alternative to the monotony of Job specialization is Job rotation that allows employees to rotate to and from various Jobs at regular intervals. Aside from reducing boredom, Job rotation provides cross-training of employees and allows managers the flexibility to assign employees to different areas of the organization. Job rotation also provides the opportunity for the interdepartmental transfer of knowledge. Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Enlargement Expanding the number of tasks employees perform while maintaining the level of difficulty is Job enlargement. (George & Jones, 2008) Similar to Job rotation, Job enlargement prevents boredom by allowing employees to obtain training in several different skills and increases the flexibility of the utilization of human resources. Job enlargement, also known as horizontal Job loading, also increases employee satisfaction because employees feel their role in the organization has increased.
Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Job Enrichment Redesigning Jobs to provide employees with more responsibility and control over how their Jobs are performed is known as Job enrichment. Also known as vertical Job loading, Job enrichment promotes employee growth by assigning tasks to employees that were previously designated for their supervisors. (George & Jones, 2008) Some ways managers can promote Job enrichment include: 0 Allowing employees to plan their own work schedules; (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to determine how their work should be performed; (George &
Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to check their own work; (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing employees to learn new skills. (George & Jones, 2008) By giving employees more responsibility and control over their work behavior leads to increased Job satisfaction and productivity. Job Characteristics Model The Job Characteristics Model (“OCW) built upon the concepts of Job enlargement and Job enrichment, and was designed to identify which characteristics contribute to intrinsically motivating Jobs and the consequences of those characteristics.
The JACM seeks to design Jobs that increase motivation, performance and Job satisfaction along tit other vital facets of organizational behavior. (George & Jones, 2008) The JACM focuses on five core dimensions that affect intrinsic motivation. 1 . Skill Variety is the extent to wanly a person Is required to use Deterrent Skills, telltales or talents on a particular Job. The higher the skill level, the more intrinsically motivated the employee is by the Job. (George & Jones, 2008) 2. Task Identity is the extent a person is responsible for and involved in an identifiable task from inception to completion. Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) Tasks tit higher levels of task identity are more intrinsically motivating. (George & Jones, 2008) 3. Task significance is the extent a person feels their Job is significantly impacts other people’s lives, work, health or well-being. When people feel their Jobs make a positive impact on the community, they have a tendency to experience an increased sense of self-worth. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) 4.
Autonomy is the level of freedom a person has to schedule their tasks and determine how they will be performed. Higher autonomy generally results in Geiger levels of intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) 5. Feedback is the extent a person receives concise information regarding their effectiveness. Constructive feedback results in high intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) Using the five core dimensions of the JACM, the Motivating Potential Score (“MSP”) can be determined to “measure the overall potential of a Job to foster intrinsic motivation. (George & Jones, 2008) Empowerment Removing certain barriers and giving employees the freedom to make important decisions and perform their Jobs effectively is known as empowerment. Empowerment, a form of self-management, is an extension of the concept of autonomy and a contemporary approach to motivating employees. (Section 1: Motivating Employees through Job Design I Flat World Knowledge) A goal is an individual’s desired result of their behavior and/or actions. Goal setting is designed not only to motivate employees, but also to ensure they achieve acceptable job performance levels.
Goal-setting theory identifies and explains the most effective types of goals to produce the highest level of motivation and performance. Goal- setting theory also explains why goals have these effects. George & Jones, 2008) Studies show that a combination of specific and difficult goals generally achieves the highest level of motivation and performance. (Locke & Lethal, 1990) Specific goals tend to be quantitative and motivate employees to reach a certain goal. Difficult goals motivate employees to reach goals that are not easily attainable by most people.
A high level of self-efficacy is essential to successful the goal setting process. Self- efficacy is “a person’s belief in their abilities to perform at a designated level to achieve desired results. ” (George & Jones, 2008) Allowing the employee to participate n the goal setting process is also essential because it increases the employee’s acceptance of and commitment to the goals being set for them. Providing feedback to the employee also increases the effectiveness of the goal setting process. Green River employed the scientific management approach to Job design.