Week 10: Renal and Urologic Systems Disorders of the renal and urologic systems can sometimes pose difficulties in the clinical setting. Patients are often hesitant to seek treatment for symptoms of these disorders because they might be embarrassed or uncomfortable with associated questions and physical examinations. When treating and managing disorders of these systems, it is important for advanced practice nurses to recognize that the causes and/or habits that lead to the disorders can vary significantly between not just children and adults, but also between females and males. Additionally, the consequences of the disorders can vary significantly among different patient groups, making it essential to be able to identify renal and urologic disorders and recommend appropriate treatment options. This week you examine the pathophysiology of urinary tract infections. You also explore the impact of patient factors on urinary tract infections. Learning Objectives Students will: • Compare the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on urinary tract infections • Analyze the pathophysiology of disorders within body systems • Evaluate the impact of patient factors on disorders within body systems • Evaluate clinical considerations of disorders within body systems • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to alterations of the renal and urologic systems Discussion: Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria—most often Escherichia coli. However, certain viruses, fungi, and parasites can also lead to infection. The infection can affect the lower and upper urinary tract, including the urethra, prostate (in males), bladder, ureter, and kidney. Due to the progression of the disease and human anatomy, symptoms present differently among the sexes as well as among age groups. It is important to understand how these factors, as well as others, impact the pathophysiology of UTIs. Advanced practice nurses must have this foundation in order to properly diagnose patients. To Prepare • Review Chapter 30 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections. Consider the similarities and differences between the two types of infections. • Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.