# ATMO FORECASTING PRECIPITATION

In the activity below you will be analyzing four stuve diagrams and using them to then forecast the most likely kind of precipitation that fell at those locations on the days the sounding was taken.

## ForecastingPrecipitation.docx

Forecasting Precipitation Types Name __________________________

The four main precipitation types we will be investigating are rain, snow, sleet, and freezing rain.

1. On the diagram below, fill in the name of each phase change:

GAS LIQUID SOLID

2. Each of these precipitation types are produced by phase changes of water. Describe the ALL the phase changes and other processes that happen to produce each type of precipitation (for some there might be multiple ways to form them):

RAIN

SNOW

SLEET

FREEZING RAIN

3. Look at the upper air diagrams (stuve) on the following pages. For each location describe how the (a) temperature (how does T change as you go up, you can describe this in pressure layers) and

(b) moisture characteristics (how close or far are T and Td as you go up, describe in pressure layers)

change as you rise through the atmosphere.

Make sure you include the surface temperature, what layers are above or below 0 degrees C, and the maximum temperature observed.

SGF Springfield

(a)

(b)

SLE Salem

(a)

(b)

TBW Tampa Bay

(a)

(b)

SLC Salt Lake City

(a)

(b)

4. Looking at the information you described in questions 1 and 2, as well as the upper air diagrams (stuve) on the following pages, provide a forecast what precipitation type you think will fall at each location. Hint: Each precipitation type will only be used once. Why did you produce that forecast?

SGF Springfield Precipitation Type ____________________

WHY?

SLE Salem Precipitation Type ____________________

WHY?

TBW Tampa Bay Precipitation Type ____________________

WHY?

SLC Salt Lake City Precipitation Type ____________________

WHY?

5. Which precipitation type do you think would have the biggest impact if it fell on a large city? WHY?

6. Imagine that a storm moves into Salt Lake City at 8am. From 8-10am the precipitation falls as rain, from 10-11am the precipitation falls as sleet, and from 11am-5pm the precipitation falls as snow. Describe and/or sketch how the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere over Salt Lake City might have changed throughout the day.